1. Marigold is one of the most commonly grown flowers for garden decoration and extensively used as loose flowers for making garlands for religious and social functions.
2. It has gained popularity amongst the gardeners on account of its easy culture and wide adaptability.
3. Its habit of free flowering, short duration to produce marketable flowers, wide spectrum of attractive colours, shape, size and good keeping quality has attracted the attention of flower growers.
4. Marigolds are ideal for cut flowers, especially for making garlands.
5. They can be planted in the beds for mass display or grown in pots. The French Marigolds are suitable for hanging basket and edging.
6. The demand for Marigold flowers during Dashara and Diwali is very high.
1. Marigold requires mild climate for luxuriant growth and flowering.
2. The optimum temperature range for its profuse growth is 18-20°C.
3. Temperatures above 35°C restrict the growth of the plants, which leads to reduction in flower size and number.
4. In severe winter, plants and flowers are damaged by frost.
1. Marigold can be grown in a wide range of soils, as it is adapted in different soil types.
2. French (Dwarf) marigolds are best cultivated in light soil whereas a rich well drained, moist soils are best suited for African (Tall) marigolds.
3. Sandy loam soil with pH 5.6 to 6.5 is ideal for its cultivation.
Species and cultivar
Among 50 species of marigold only for are cultivated. These are
1. Tagetes erecta (African marigold): cultivating it for medicinal, ceremonial and decorative purposes. This plant reaches heights of between 50–100 cm (20–39 in). The colour range is from white and cream to primose, yellow, gold and orange.
2. Tagetes patula (French marigold): The flower is an annual, occasionally reaching 0.5 m by 0.3 m.. stem is reddish in colour and the foliage is darker than African marigold. The colour of flower varies from yellow to red, either single or double and borne on proportionately long peduncle.
3. Tagetes tenufolia( Syn. T. signata); it is a dwarf and bushy plant. Flowers have 5 rays, roundish and obovate with spicy tarragon flavor.
4. Tagetes lucida (sweet scented marigold): The plants are tender, perennial, leaves are sessile, small and lanceolated. Flowers are usually 2-3 rayed.
Indigenous varieties of African Marigold:
1. Pusa Narangi Gainda: The plant of this variety is medium strature, grows a heit of 8085 cm. the plant remain vegetative for 100 days and flowers in 125-135 days. The flowering duration ranges from 45-60 days. The colour of flower is orange with big ruffled florets. The yield of variety 25-30 tonnesw/ ha. This is an open pollinated variety and seed can be multiplied in farmers field.
2. Pusa Basanti Gainda: The plant of this variety are medium strature, which grows a height of 60-65 cm. the plant remain vegetative for 135 days and takes 140-145 days to flowers.the plant need to pinch 45-50 days. The variety sown in October and transplanted during November. It is an open pollinated variety and yield up to 75-100 kg of seeds/ha.
3. Pusa Arpita: It is summer growing marigold. The plant have dense foliage. It is also an open pollinated variety.
4. Serakal: this variety was identified in Eastern India. The specialty of this variety is uniform and bushy growth of the foliage and uniform size of flowers as well. The plant is generally grown by cutting. This plant can be propagated throughout the year.
For the main-field, the land should be ploughed well followed by 2-3 harrowing and mixing of FYM @ 20-25 t/ha should be incorporated to the soil. Make the ridges and furrow properly.
1. There are two common methods of propagation of marigold i.e. by seeds and by cuttings.
2. Plants raised from seeds are tall, vigorous and heavy yielder and hence, seed propagation is preferred to cuttings.
1. The marigold seeds are black in color and remain viable for about 1-2 years for rising of seedlings,
2. Seed germinate in 5-7 days. Before sowing the seeds should be treated with captan 2g/kg of seed to prevent damping off.
3. Seeds should be sowed in pots, seed boxes or raised nursery beds.
4. Nursery beds are prepared by digging area and incorporating well rotten FYM.
5. Before sowing the seeds, the soils should be drenched with Captan to avoid the ants, which carry away the seeds.
6. Seeds should be sown thinly (6-8 cm row to row) and 2cm deep and covered with sieved leaf mold.
7. The nursery beds should be remained moist during entire period.
8. The quantity of seed required depends upon the level of its purity and germination rate.
9. Generally 200-300g seed/acre is required for raising the nursery in summer and rainy season, and 150-200g/acre for winter season.
10. About 1.0-1.5 kg seeds is required for planting in one hectare whereas 250 g/ha is sufficient in case of F1 hybrid. Seed germinate in 5-7 days.
11. The seed germinate 4-5 days after sowing and seedlings become ready for transplanting after 3-4 weeks for sowing.
Sowing time and season:
Depending on environment, planting of marigold can be done in three seasons i.e. rainy, winter and summer and seeds are sown accordingly. Hence, flowers of marigold can be obtained throughout the year. The seasons of sowing and transplanting of seedling for obtaining flowers at different seasons of a year are as under:-
Transplanting of seedlings:
1. Marigold seedlings are easily transplanted and established in the field without much mortality.
2. At the time of transplanting, they should be stocky and bear 3-5 true leaves.
3. Thin and long seedlings do not make a good plant.
4. Very old seedlings are also not desirable.
5. Transplanting should be done in well prepared land and soil is pressed around root zone to avoid air pocket.
6. After transplanting, a light irrigation or watering with rose cane should be done.
7. Plant density depends largely upon the growth habit, cultivar and the soil type.
8. In general, spacing should be 30 cm x 30 cm for French marigold and 40 cm x 40 cm for African marigold.
9. Proper spacing between plants is required for better development of plant and higher flower yield.
Manure and fertilizers
1. Well decomposed FYM @ 24 t/ha should be mixed before ploughing.
2. In addition recommended N:P:K fertilizer dose would be 100:75:75.
3. Half quantity of nitrogen should be and full of potash and phosphorus should be applied as basal dose, preferably one week after transplanting.
4. The remaining quantity of nitrogen should be 30-40 days after transplanting.
5. Marigold also requires zinc and boron for flower quality and yield.
1. Weeds are a major problem in marigold especially in rainy season crop. If the weeds are not removed in time, a great loss would occur in terms of growth and productivity of marigold.
2. During the entire growth 3-4 manual weeding are required.
3. Weeding should be done as and when necessary.
1. Irrigation is done once in a week or as and when necessary.
2. Water stagnation should be avoided.
3. Irrigate the crop in 7-8 days interval, but the frequency and quantity of water also depend upon soil and season. In lighter soil, more frequent irrigation is required than that in heavy soil.
4. In hot summer it requires irrigation after 405 days interval while at 10-12 days interval in winter months.
5. Rainy season crops are irrigated according to the climate.
6. Constant moisture supply be maintained from bud formation to harvesting of flowers.
Pinching/ nipping and earthling up:
1. Three weeks after transplanting earthling up is done and then one week after earthling up or 1 month after transplanting the seedlings.
2. Pinching is followed for bushy growth of the plant and development of lateral branches.
3. Pinching is generally done for the 40 days after transplanting, late pinching at 50-60 days proved less effective for branching.
4. Pinching results into production of more number of flowers.
|Damping off (Rhizoctonia solani)
||Brown necrotic spots on young seedlings
||Proper drainage and ventilation, avoid over watering
Drenching with copper oxychloride @3g/l
|Collar rot ( , Pythium sp., Phytophthora sp. And Sclerotium rolfsii.
||Black lesions on main stem. Rotting at the collar region.
||Crop rotation for 3-4 years.
Carbendazim @ 1g/l reduces the incidence of disease.
|Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria tagetica, A. zinnia and A. alternate)
||Minute brown spot near the lower leaves and then progress upward.
||Avoid overhead watering.
Spraying of Dithane M-45 2 0.2% at fortnightly intervals from the first appearance of disese
|Botrytis flower Blight (Botrytis cinerea)
||Ashy grey spot on bud scales and stems.
Dying of blooms.
Spraying of mancozeb at 0.2%
|Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum)
||Pale green leaves, wilting of plant.
Carbendazim (0.2%) is effective
|Powdery mildew (Oidium sp. And Leveillula taurica)
||It appears as grey or white powder. Leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely.
||Kerathane (40 E.C) @ 0.5% or dusting sulphar powder at 15 days interval.
| Viral disease (cucumber mosaic)
|| Streaking or motling of leaves
||Dimethoate at 2 ml/l
|Red spider mite (Tetranychus sp.)
||They suck the plant sap,
||Spraying of Kelthane (2 ml/l)
|Hairy cater piller (Diacrisia oblique)
||Eat away the foliage.
||Spray Carbaryl @ 2 ml/l
||Black or brown spot
||Spraying of malathion or dimethoate at 2 ml/l
|Leaf Hopper (Empoasca fabae)
||Cupped leaves, rolled leaveswilting of leaves.
||Spraying of Dimethoate at 2 ml/l
Harvesting of Flowers:
1. After transplanting plans take 40-50 days to flower.
2. Loose flowers are plucked when attain full size depending upon the variety.
3. Flowers should be harvested in the morning hours.
4. Irrigation before plucking gives better flower quality.
5. Plucking of flowers regularly and removal of dried flowers enhance the yield.
6. French Mangold starts flowering 1 to 1 Vz months after transplanting while African Marigold I 14 to 2 months after transplanting of seedlings.
7. For Garland stalk less fully opened flowers (loose flowers) are picked, white for vase decoration also fully opened flowers with stalk are plucked.
8. Loose flowers are packed in a bamboo basket, while flowers with stalk are bunched in bundles and transported to market.
9. From one plant near about 100 to 150 flowers are obtained. Blooming duration is near about 3 months.
1. After harvesting, it is better to keep flowers in cool place.
2. The marigold is packed in gunny bags for local market and for distance market bamboo basket are used.
African marigolds yield about 15-28 t/ha whereas the French marigold yields 10-12 t/ha.