It is believed that the rice plant may have originated in southern India, then spread to the north of the country and then onwards to China. It then arrived in Korea, the Philippines (about 2000 B. C.) and then Japan and Indonesia (about 1000 B. C.).
In the Indian subcontinent more than a quarter of the cultivated land is given to rice (20011-12). It is a very essential part of the daily meal in the southern and eastern parts of India. In the northern and central parts of the subcontinent, where wheat is frequently eaten, rice holds its own and is cooked daily as well as on festivals and special occasions.
History of Rice:
India is an important centre of rice cultivation. The rice is cultivated on the largest areas in India. It is believed that the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas. Perennial wild rice still grow in Assam and Nepal.
In India rice is grown under widely varying conditions of altitude and climate. Rice crop needs a hot and humid climate. It is best suited to regions which have high humidity, prolonged sunshine and an assured supply of water.
The average temperature required throughout to the crop throughout its life ranges from 21 to 37º C. Maximum temp in which the crop can grow is 400C to 42 0C.
Nutritional value of Rice:
Carbohydrate (starch) is the important component of rice due to which it provides instant energy. Rice is poor in nitrogenous substances with average composition of these substances being only 8 per cent and fat content or lipids only negligible, i.e., 1per cent and due to this reason it is considered as a complete food for eating.
Rice flour is rich in starch and is used for making various food materials. It is also used in some instances by brewers to make alcoholic malt.
The various varieties of rice germplasm is a rich source for many rice based products. It is also helps in treating many health related issues such as indigestion, diabetes, arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy. Medicinal rice varieties like Kanthi Banko (Chhattisgarh), Meher, Saraiphul & Danwar (Orissa), Atikaya & Kari Bhatta (Karnataka), are very common in India.
Crop Production Practices:
In India Rice is mainly grown in two types of soils i.e., (i) uplands and (ii) low lands. The crop of rice is grown with the following methods:
1. Dry or Semi-dry upland cultivation
Broadcasting the seed
Sowing the seed behind the plough or drilling
2. Wet or lowland cultivation
Transplanting in puddled fields.
Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddled fields.
Selection of Seeds:
The use of quality seeds in cultivation of rice is an important factor to get better crop yield. Seeds intended for sowing should satisfy the following requirements:
- The seed should belong to the proper variety, which is proposed to be grown.
- The seed should be clean and free from obvious mixtures of other seeds.
- The seed should be mature, well developed and plump in size.
- The seed should be free from obvious signs of age or bad storage.
- The seed should have a high germinating capacity.
- Before sowing the seed should be treated with fungicides which protects the seed against soil-born fungi and also give a boost to the seedlings.
Paddy is grown in wide range of soil. Fertile riverine alluvial soil is best for rice cultivation. Clayey loam soil in monsoon land is considered to be the best for rice cultivation as water retention capacity of this soil is very high.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are three essential plant nutrients required for rice. Most of the paddy lands have a moderate quantity of such nutrients, but if they are deficient, organic manure or artificial fertilizers have to be used.
A reduction in the yield of rice in 2018 as compared to previous year has generated wide discussion and concern among farmers, researchers and policy makers. Experts reason that the decrease in yield can be attributed due to weather vagaries during the kharif season. The main cause of yield reduction is heavy rain during the second half of the month of September.
In the year 2017, the average rainfall recorded during this period was 24.4 mm as compared to 250.6 mm this year. As a result, this year, average temperatures beginning from mid September, right up to maturity of rice, remained 4-5 degree centigrade below normal. This extended abnormal phase led to decreased grain filling as well poor shape formation of grains.
The second reason can be attributed to the early part of the rice season (June- July) being wetter than last year. Higher cloud cover was observed throughout the state during the rice vegetative phase, as a result of which there was a reduction in the number of sunshine hours. This led to decreased tillering.
The decreased paddy yield is also being attributed to the five day shift in transplanting date, which is unscientific, considering that Haryana, where there was no shift in rice transplanting dates, has recorded lower paddy yield in comparison to Punjab.
Even in the water logging prone district of Muktsar where rice transplantation was done between 10- 20 June, low yields have been recorded. Thus lowered productivity is due to rare weather anomalies observed during the season and it would be irrational to roll back the water saving intervention of 20th June as the transplanting start date.
Chennai, TamilNadu: Food Minister R. Kamaraj assured that the direct paddy procurement centres in the State would continue to function as usual.
In an official release he said, “accepting the requests from farmers, Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami has ordered the continued functioning of the procurement centres.”
The Minister’s clarification comes amid reports that the Centre had ordered Tamil Nadu to close direct procurement centres, a directive which evoked criticism. Mr. Kamaraj also said officials of the department have been instructed on the continuation of procurement.
In a separate statement, PMK founder S. Ramadoss sought clarification from the State government on the issue. He said, “Even if the Union government has ordered the closure [of procurement centres], the State government should come forward to run them with its own funds and offer their services under the public distribution system.”
Earlier, in Mannargudi, Tamil Nadu All Farmers’ Federation president P.R. Pandian condemned the Central government’s directive to Tamil Nadu to stop the procurement of paddy. Speaking to mediapersons, Mr. Pandian called on the State government to continue the procurement of paddy.
He said, “After promising Rs. 200 more per quintal of paddy, the Central government's latest directive amounts to destroying the farming community.”
Mr. Pandian said that, while short breaks in procurement inbetween Kuruvai harvest and start of Samba cultivation was not uncommon, this time, there was “shockingly no indication” on when the procurement would resume.
Though paddy saplings had been readied at nurseries, water from the Cauvery had not reached the fields. Crops of directly-sown paddy were drying up. The position taken by the State government that a ring fence would be constructed across the Coleroon near the crumbled regulator for diversion of the entire water flow through the Cauvery was not acceptable and to demand the construction of a dam at Rasimanal, farmers' associations would stage a protest at Mukkombu on September 8, he said.
Expressing shock over the stoppage of paddy procurement, Arupathy Kalyanam, general secretary, Federation of Farmers Associations of Delta Districts, urged the State government to prevent Cauvery delta farmers from resorting to distress sale. Since private merchants do not procure paddy from farmers, the Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation has to procure the entire paddy produce from them.
In a letter to the Secretary of Agriculture, Government of Tamil Nadu, Mr. Arupathy Kalyanam said there was no other avenue for farmers to sell their produce. As an outcome of the State government's Special Kuruvai package, farmers in the Cauvery delta region had cultivated paddy in around three lakh acres. The directive from the Centre had come at a time when procurement was at its peak, and was expected to reach five lakh tonnes by October-end.
In the letter, Mr. Arupathy Kalyanam said that, the Centre's instruction that the new Kharif Minimum Support Price must take effect from September 1 must be followed in Tamil Nadu.
Hyderabad: A new technique developed by Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University could change the way paddy is cultivated in the State.
Called Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation Practice (AWD), it is expected to reduce 30-35 per cent of water required for growing rice and helps in early maturity.
The technique involves irrigating the paddy for a certain number days and after disappearance of water from the field, it is re-flooded. To implement this technique, all that a farmer requires is a 30cm long PVC pipe of 15 cm diameter. The pipe is drilled with holes of 5mm diameter spaced 2 cm apart and later the perforated side of the tube is buried in the paddy field while removing mud from it. The paddy fields are later irrigated up to 5cm above the soil and water is left to drop to 10 cm below the soil surface in the field tube.
The AWD irrigation can be started a few days after transplanting the paddy into the field. Depending on the type of the soil, weather conditions and crop growth stage, re-flooding is done between one day and seven days after transplantation till the end of the life-cycle of the paddy.
According to the university, which has conducted research, about 3,250 litres of water is required to produce one kg of paddy in the State and the new technique can save up to 660 litres of water per kilogram of paddy. In all, 35 per cent water can be reduced for cultivating the paddy. It is also considered as a climate smart agriculture practice and helps farmers to cope with declining water levels in wells and unforeseen water scarcity situations.
This apart, as the paddy fields are periodically irrigated unlike continuous flooding, it reduces emission of methane, a potent greenhouse gas that causes global warming. It also helps increase the net profit as farmers use less water and power besides bringing down labour requirement.
“The new AWD technique has been developed as per requirements of farmlands in the State. It reduces water consumption for cultivating paddy and also emission of greenhouse gases. The varsity has demonstrated the techniques to the farmers in 15 districts and is being promoted in largescale across the State,” Dr V Praveen Rao, Vice-Chancellor, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University said.
KOCHI:The Thottara rice brand cultivated in Thottarapuncha, the paddy barn of Ernakulam, will hit the market . The brand declaration and first sale will be held at a function at Arayankavu Shri Badhra Auditorium.
Agriculture Minister V S Sunil Kumar will inaugurate the rice sale at the event, which will mark the success of reviving farming in Thottarpuncha fields that had been lying fallow for some years. A major portion of the 1,082-acre Thottarapuncha paddy field is spread over Mullathuruthy, Amballur and Edakattuvayal panchayats in Ernakulam district. The remaining portion lies in Kottayam district.
With focus shifting to developmental activities in the district, farming practices at Thottarapuncha took a back seat in the last decade. Thanks to various government-supported programmes, the district administration could encourage farmers and revive farming activities in the area. Around 652 acres of Thottarapuncha could yield 1,500 tonnes of rice this year.
The paddy is processed at Modern Rice Mill in Vechoor, Vaikom. The Thottarapuncha rice will be sold in the market at `55 per kg packet.After the land acquisition for various projects and canals, around 700 acres of the Thottarapuncha were left out. Of that, over 600 acres were used for cultivation, which saw a mix of modern and traditional farming methods. The farmers’ committee formed recently with the support of the Agriculture Department and the district administration will oversee the sale of the Thottara brand rice.
Apart from the local self-governing bodies, Kudumbashree, Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and Keecheri Service Cooperative Bank are also providing support to the farmer’s committee. Besides popularising Thottarapuncha brand, the initiative also intends to provide fair price to farmers for their produce. Paddy cultivation in Thottarapuncha takes place once a year. The fields remain submerged during the remaining part of the year. In the coming years, the entire Thottarapuncha fields will shift completely to organic farming.
Jose K Mani MP, Anoop Jacob MLA, District panchayat president Asha Sanil and District Collector K Mohammed Y Safirulla will attend the function.
NAGPUR: ‘Parvati Sut-27’, a new variety of rice developed by Sudhakar Poshettiwar, a farmer from Talodi in Chandrapur district, has become popular among cultivators as it is small in size, scented and gives yield within 125 days.
On being encouraged by Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA), this year, farmers in Nagpur district have sowed the new rice variety in 200 acre area. Farmers are keen on getting the crop as the new variety had caught attention in the recently organized food festival.
On an experimental basis that yielded 20 quintals per hectare, ;ast year, cultivation of the variety was taken up in 170 acres of land by farmers’ self-help group (SHG). Project director Nalini Bhoyar said that, ATMA has taken an initiative to reach seeds of ‘Parvati Sut-27’ to other farmers.
The newly developed variety was introduced in the food festival to improve demand from the people. As organic farming method was utilized for cultivation of this rice variety on an experimental basis, good production of 1360 quintals was recorded in 20 hectares of land.
In the food festival, the variety fetched a price of Rs70 per quintal. The variety has been made available for cultivation in rice belts of Mouda, Umred, Kuhi, Ramtek and Parseoni. Germination ability and other properties of the variety were tested in a paddy laboratory before making it available to farmers for sowing.
By the end of this month, the Thottara organic rice brand harvested from Thottara Puncha, a vast expanse of paddy field spread over Amballoor and Edakkattuvayal in Ernakulam district, will hit the market.
Come April 10, and the inauguration of this year’s harvest of paddy cultivated in nearly 550 acres will take place amid a gathering of hundreds of farmers, elected representatives, and officials.
Ernakulam district co-ordinator of the Haritha Keralam Mission, Sujith Karun said, “We plan to brand nearly 40 tonnes of organic rice as Thottara Rice and market it through the existing network of the Agriculture Department. In the next phase, larger quantities of the produce will be taken up for branding.”
The organisers are hoping to harvest around 1,500 metric tonnes of paddy from Thottara Puncha, which extends to around 1,200 acres at Amballur and Edakkattuvayal in Ernakulam district and Vellur panchayat in Kottayam district.
Farmers affiliated to nine Padashekhara Samitis are engaged in paddy cultivation. It is expected that around 300 tonnes of rice can be produced from 1,500 metric tonnes of paddy cultivated in the 550-acre area. The Agriculture Department has the capacity to market nearly 40 tonnes of Thottara brand rice in the first phase. And, farmers can sell the remaining rice to private mills.
Mr. Sujith said that the Kudumbasree Mission had agreed to set up a mill at Amballoor. It will also provide ₹40 lakh for the realisation of the project. Interestingly, District Collector K. Mohammed Y. Safirulla had taken the lead in bringing the maximum available cultivable land under Thottara Puncha for paddy cultivation. Farming in the barren land began in 2015.
As part of the initiative, major preparatory works like the cleaning up of 11 km of main canals by the Minor Irrigation Department to de-water the paddy fields, land preparatory work in padashekharams, field survey for installation of 12 submersible pumps, consultations with stakeholders, and field visits to padashekharams were completed.
The district administration had increased the acreage of Thottara Puncha over the last couple of years starting with 150 acres in 2015-16 followed by 350 acres in 2016-17.
The district administration’s efforts to revive the rice bowl of Ernakulam were ably assisted by the agriculture and irrigation departments, KLDC, KSEB, local bodies, land owners, Padashekhara Samitis, and the local community at large. The Agriculture Technology Management Agency had offered training to farmers.
An indigenous aromatic rice, grown in a small pocket of north Bengal, has gained so much interest among the farmers due to the state governments encouragement that its area of cultivation has increased by 45 per cent in just three years, district officials said.
Tulaipanji is cultivated in Raiganj, Kaliaganj, Hemtabad and Karandighi blocks of Uttar Dinajpur district and Kushmandi block of Dakshin Dinajpur district.
Earlier, the farmers were not very keen to cultivate Tulaipanji, but following the encouragement by the state government, more and more peasants are now engaged in farming this variety.
"The yield of Tulaipanji was not enough in earlier years. But now the agriculture department helps us in various ways. We also get a better price for this," said Palanu Mohammad, a farmer of Bindol in Raiganj block.
In Uttar Dinajpur, Tulaipanji was cultivated in 6,700 hectare in 2017-18, compared to 5,400 hectare in 2016-17 and 4,600 hectare in 2015-16, regisetering a growth of 45 per cent in three years, district agriculture official Srikanta Sinha said.
The production of Tulaipanji has also been gradually increasing - 10,120 million tonne in 2015-16, 11,880 mt in 2016-17 and 14,740 mt in 2017-18 - in the district, Sinha said.
"If Basmati rice can be marketed countrywide in packets, the same can be done for Tulaipanji. It has an excellent aroma. The government has taken the initiative to market this rice in and outside the country," said Uttar Dinajpur District Magistrate Ayesha Rani.
The DM said the authorities have applied for GI (geographical identification) tag for Tulaipanji.
A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory. Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
A meeting was arranged by PAU yesterday at the instance of Chairman, Punjab Pollution Control Board (PPCB), in the wake of unprecedented polluted smog this season causing health hazards and ecosystem disturbances, the meeting was chaired by Vice Chancellor, PAU, Ludhiana.
Based on the experiences of this season, the agri experts and progressive farmers joined heads to device strategy to manage paddy straw during next year in an environment friendly manner. Lamenting at the myopic vision of few self-serving people who instigated the farmers to burn paddy residue (even after when paddy straw has been taken out of fields), the participants requested for effective ban on stubble burning to protect humanity and agro ecology.
The participants discussed the effectiveness and economics of various machines used this season for straw management by the farmers. It was observed that super straw management system on combine harvesters must be made compulsory so that farmers can easily manage the harvested straw. Besides, it was seen that existing different version machines such as cutter cum spreaders (mulchers), reversible plough and happy seederseffectively managepaddy straw for wheat sowing. Also, farmers already have other requisite machines like harrows and plankers besides tractors and rotavators.
A number of farmers who have been sowing wheat without paddy straw burning participated in this meeting shared their experiences and informed that the straw management technologies recommended by PAU are working well in fields. It was further highlighted that they are harvestingeven better wheat yield as compared to farmers who are burning the straw.
Dr H.S. Sidhu, from the Borlaugh Institutefor South Asia stressed the need for incorporation of paddy straw in the field rather than its removal by way of bales as the latter may create other ecological issues. He shared that happy seeder was found to be very effective tool for direct sowing of wheat after paddy harvestingby combine harvesters fitted with Super Straw Management System.
The experts and farmers requested the government to ensure effective ban on stubble burning as a measure for not only human and animals' right to breathe but also for better agro ecology and sustainability of agriculture. All emphasized that there should be no burning in the next season.
Perturbed over pest attacks, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) is mulling to encourage farmers to opt for cultivation of some new varieties of paddy which have developed resistance against insects.
The Orissa agriculture university had released seven varieties of paddy such as Tanmayee, Hiranmayee, Jyotirmayee, Nua Acharmati, Asutosh, Gobinda and Hasanta which are under various stages of notification by the State Government.
The Hasanta variety, which was cultivated by two farmers in Chikiti and Digapahandi areas in Ganjam district, seems to have developed resistance against BPH, said OUAT VC Prof Surendranath Pasupalak.
He also said, "Though other paddy varieties cultivated in lands close to Hastanta have been damaged by pest attacks, this new variety is left unharmed. We are collecting data on it. After one more test production, we would advice farmers to go for it instead of Swarna and other varieties."
Not only Hasanta, four other high yielding varieties of paddy cultivated by Subrat Adhikary of Chikiti Pentha have been untouched by the pests.
Hasanta is a high yielding paddy variety that can be harvested in 145 days and this variety is released by the agro scientists in 2014.
This paddy could be prescribed to farmers along with these four varieties so that they can be protected from huge crop loss, said Prof Pasupalak, though it has not been notified by the Government.
Due to the high productivity levels of wheat and rice and an extremely high cropping intensity, almost 204 per cent, that makes diversification to other crops challenging, the scientists in Punjab feels that the central government’s ambitious goal of doubling farmers’ incomes by 2022 could be ‘hard’ to achieve in the Punjab.
However, to double farmers’ incomes, the gross state domestic product (GSDP) from agriculture (crops and livestock) needs to rise from an estimated Rs 87,532 crore in 2015-16 to over Rs 175,064 crore in 2022, while the GSDP of Punjab at constant prices has risen by just 11.6 per cent in the six years to 2015-16. In the last six years, the GSDP in the crop sector rose by 2.9 per cent in Punjab, while for livestock it increased by 32.3 per cent.
While making a presentation in a seminar on Doubling Farmers’ Incomes by 2022, scientists from Punjab Agricultural University, the Indian Council of Agriculture Research’s (ICAR’s) Central Institute for Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology, and Guru Angad Dev Animal and Veterinary Sciences University said managing the declining water table and overcoming the adverse impact of climate variability were some of the major challenges in the state.
Punjab is among the foremost agricultural states in the country with 4.2 million hectares of net sown area, of which 99 per cent is irrigated. Rice and wheat was grown in almost 82 per cent of the state’s net sown area in 2016-17.
Punjab’s annual productivity in paddy is a high 61.9 quintals per hectare, while in wheat it is 50.5 quintals per hectare. The Centre has embarked on an ambitious target of doubling farmers’ incomes by 2022.
According to the presentation, it is important to encouraging cultivation of high-value crops like vegetables, fruits and agro-forestry, which yield better returns; promoting integrated farming systems in small and marginal farms; rationalizing the use of chemical fertilizers; and raising yields of important crops through technological innovation were some of the measures through which farmers’ incomes could be doubled in the state by 2022.
Presentation also noted that reducing the use of pesticides, raising capital expenditure on farm machinery, promoting precision agriculture technologies and encouraging adoption of subsidiary occupations were some of the other ways in which incomes could be doubled.
With farmers busy raising nurseries and transplanting the crop, 'Samba' paddy cultivation is gaining momentum in the Tiruchi district.
Officials of Agriculture Department are expect about 50,000 hectares to be covered under samba paddy and they are confident of a good season this year. For the year, they were also hoping to achieve the food grain production target of 4.07 lakh tonnes.
According to the department, samba paddy has been raised on about 20,900 hectares so far in the district. Nurseries have been raised on another 1,759 hectares.
Though there are complaints that the water has not reached the tail end areas of some of the irrigation canals, farmers too are hopeful of a good season,
The Agriculture Department has launched a campaign to sensitise farmers to insure their crop under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY). Insuring the crop would give farmers the confidence and hope that they would be compensated if their crop was damaged due to natural calamities, officials point out.
The total premium payable for an acre of paddy is Rs. 3,974. However, the farmers contribution is just 1.5% of the sum insured (Rs. 26,850) and hence the farmers need to pay Rs. 403 per acre and the rest of the amount will be borne by the Government. Under the scheme, department officials point out that the premium to be paid by the farmers is highly subsidised.
At firka level or revenue village level in the district, this year, crop insurance can be done in 345 notified revenue villages for all notified crops.
Officials said that, the cut-off date for insuring samba paddy crop is November 30 and the cut-off date for being eligible for making claims under the ‘prevented sowing’ category is October 20.
On the back of favourable climatic conditions and forecast of normal rainfall this monsoon season, sowing area under basmati paddy is likely to increase by 25 per cent in 2017.
At 96 per cent of long period average (LPA) with 5 per cent of plus and minus error, the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) forecasted normal rainfall this monsoon. Late beginning of rainfall coupled with dry spells in some parts of major growing regions resulted into less acreage under basmati paddy last year.
For the financial year 2016-17, rating agency Icra estimates the area under basmati paddy at 1.6 million hectares, in the previous year, around 20 percent decline from the level of 2.1 million hectares.
Joint managing director, Kohinoor Foods, producer of Kohinoor brand basmati rice, Gurnam Arora said, “This year, the area under basmati paddy, however, is estimated to rise at least to the level of 2015-16. There are two major factors which would help farmers to bring in the additional area under basmati this year – favourable monsoon and sharp increase in realisation from basmati rice this year. We are confident that basmati rice production and export would also proportionately go up."
Basmati rice constitutes a small portion of the total rice produced in India. According to the advanced estimate of the Ministry of Agriculture estimates India’s total rice output to hit the new record at 108.86 million tonnes for the year 2016-17 compared to the final output of 104.41 million tonnes for 2015-16.
While nearly 88 per cent of India’s overall output contributed by Kharif season and rabi season shares the rest. for past few years, basmati rice has witnessed growing demand from the domestic market. For the last two years, the international demand, though has remained weak, from this year onwards on Iran, the largest importer, coming back on procurement from India again, it is expected to witness some uptick.
Since January–March quarter, basmati rice exports to Iran have started. This financial year, the industry expects Iran to purchase at least 1 million tonnes.
Executive director of All India Rice Exporters’ Association, Rajan Sundareshan said, “The Chinese government has identified 14 Indian firms to export basmati rice to that country. Despite the taste being different for consumers, there has been a growing appetite for Indian basmati rice in China. We expect direct export to China to begin very shortly. Currently, India exports a small quantity of basmati rice to China indirectly through Hong Kong."
The basmati rice industry has witnessed moderation over the last few years on the back of subdued international demand, partly attributable to the delay in resumption of imports by Iran.
Basmati paddy prices have firmed up by 20-25 per cent across various varieties, primarily due to relatively lower production, in the recent procurement season, after declining considerably during the procurement season in FY16. This is likely to push up basmati rice prices in the next financial year.