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Crop Cultivation Guidence



Roses are symbol of beauty, fragrance and are used to convey the message of love. In India roses are grown for cut flowers, making essential oil, rose water and gulkand. Dry petals of roses are also used for making incense sticks. Roses are native of Himalayas regions, Asia, China, Japan, Europe and North America. There are about 150 species but very few species have played a major role in evolving modern roses. These species are Rosa gallica, R. damascena,

R. Wichuriana. Modern roses are derived from crosses between the Chinese roses (Rosa Chinensis) and the European roses (R.gigantea, R. damascena and R. moschata ). grouped into the following classes.


A. Hybrid Teas

  1. Red and dark red: Black Velvet, Crimson Glory, Happiness

  2. Orange: Hawaii, Super, Star, Duke of Windsor

  3. Yellow: Summer Sunshine, Golden Giant, Kiss of Fire, Double Delight

  4. Pink: Eiffel Tower, First Love, First Prize

  5. White: Virgo, White Christmas,

  6. Bicolours: Suspense (red and yellow), Perfecta (pink and white),

  7. Lavender: Blue, Africa Star, Paradise

  8. Novel Colour: Careless Love

  9. Fragrant Roses: Fragrant Cloud, Sugandha

B. Floribunda

These have been produced by crossing Hybrid Tea and dwarf polyantha.

  1. Red: Rob Roy, Jantar Mantar

  2. Orange: Scarlet, Independence, Shola

  3. Yellow: All Gold, Fugitive, Gold Bunny

  4. Pink: Queen Elizabeth, Mercedes

  5. White: Iceberg, Himagini

  6. Lavender: Angel Face, Lavender Princess

  7. Bicolour: Red Gold, Fantasia

  8. Multi Colour: Banjaran, Madhura

C. Polyantha

Ideal, Swati, Echo, Madam Gladstone

D. Miniature

These are also called as Baby roses. They are compact but dwarf plants. These were introduced from China as Pigmy rose (R.Chininsis variety minima). These are mostly ideally suited for edging, pots, rockeries or window gardens.

  1. Red: Red Flush, Little red

  2. Pink: Rosemarin

  3. Orange: Sum Blaze, Mary Marshal

  4. Yellow: Yellow Doll, Summer Butter

  5. White: Cindrella

  6. Lavender: Jewel

  7. Multi Colour: Puppy Love, Party Girl

  8. Bicolour: Sassy Lassy

E. Climbing and rambling

These produce long arching canes and need some support to keep them upright. Show Girl, Prosperity, Golden Showers, Delhi Pink Pearl, Casino

F. Shrub Roses

Cocktail, Joseph’s Coat

Climate and Soil:

Roses require fertile and clay loam and loam soils. Soil should be deep having good water holding capacity with proper drainage. Roses do well in soils having pH upto 6.0 to 7.5 but it can also grow satisfactorily in alkaline soil with pH upto 8.4. The soil pH can be brought in safe limits by adding gypsum or other acidifying agents in alkaline soil whereas pH of acidic soil can be raised by adding well ground dolomite lime stone. Rose can be successfully cultivated in mild climate with good sunshine. It ceases to grow at vary low temperature.


The place selected for planting roses should be dug thoroughly to a depth of 90-120 cm and kept open for few days. The soil should be dried and refilled with 10-15 kg/sq.m. well rotten farm yard manure and good garden soil at the top. The spacing between plants varies with the vigour of the variety but generally H.T. varieties can be planted at the distance of 75cm from each other while for the varieties of floribundas which are used for massing, a distance of 60 cm can be kept.

For planting roses, best time is from end of September to middle of October but it can be extended upto November. At the time of planting roses, the soil of the size of earth ball should be removed from the bed and plant should be placed in this pit. Soil should be refilled and well pressed. Care should be taken that bud union is just above the ground. Light pruning i.e. tipping back of the branches should be done. After planting, frequent irrigation, removal of root suckers manuring should be done.


Roses are commonly propagated by "T" or shield budding on the rootstock. The common rootstock used in Edouard rose (R.bourboniana) or R.multiflora. Recently R. indica odorata has been found better than the former rootstocks.

Intercultural operation Pruning

About 3 to 4 days before pruning, watering is withheld. Rose is generally pruned during the 2nd week of October, from 7th to 14th, and about 6 to 7 weeks of pruning, the plants start flowering. The old Hybrid Tea bushes are pruned by removing all old and useless wood and shortening the previous season’s thick shoots by half their length, keeping about 5 to 6 eyes on each stem. The Floribundas are pruned moderately. The climbing of rambling roses need almost no pruning.


Many arbitrary recommendations are available about feeding of roses. Roses should be fed with both organic and inorganic sources. One hundred gram of mixture containing groundnut cake –5 kg. Bonemeal – 5 kg, ammophos (11:48) – 2 kg, Ammonium Sulphate –1 kg super phosphate (single) –2 kg and Potassium Sulphate –1kg should be applied per bush for better results. Results obtained at PAU reveal that addition of 60 g N, 20 g of P2O5 and K2O should be applied per sq.m. containing nine plants. These fertilizers should be applied in two splits i.e. half amount of N, full dose of P and K at the time of pruning and remaining half one month after the first application. In the market many ready-made rose mixtures are being sold which can also be applied.


Water requirement of roses depend upon soil type and seasons. Light soils require more frequent irrigation than heavy soils. During summer, water requirement is more than winter. Therefore, irrigation is adjusted in a way that soil is moist but not wet. During rainy season, watering is generally not done except during drought period. During winter, irrigation is done at about 7-10 days interval whereas during summer it should be done at an interval of 5-6 days. Heavy watering at comparatively long intervals is more useful than frequent light watering.

Pest and Diseases


  • White ants

They attack the plants and damage the root system and slowly plants die completely. White ants can be controlled by applying 5% B.H.C. and 5% DDT @ 2.5-5 g/pit at the time of planting.

  • Red scale

The branches are covered with a reddish-brown incrustation under which the insect sucks the juice of the plants. This pest can be controlled by spraying malathion or parathion or 0.25% Sevin in April and again in October or by the application of Thimet in the ground.

  • Aphids

These appear in winter months on leaves and flower buds. This can be controlled by spraying 0.1% Malathion or by applying granules of Thimet.

  • Digger Wasp

Damaging freshly pruned rose plants controlled by applying 1% BHC or DDT in fungicide at the cut end at the time of pruning.


  • Die-back (Diplodia roseum).

This appears after pruning. The drying up and blackening of pruned shoots start from the downwards. For its effective control, the pruned cut end should be painted with a fungicidal paint, prepared of 4 parts copper carbonate, 4 parts of red lead and 5 parts of linseed oil.

  • Black spot (Diplocarpon rosae)

This disease appears in November and continues till the end of March. Conspicuous circular black spots (less than 1 cm) with fringed margins appear on either side of leaf. Leaves become chlorotic dry up and prematurely drop. It can be easily controlled by spraying 0.2% Captan or Ferbam fungicides at fortnightly intervals.

  • Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa var.rosae)

It is a serious disease in warm, humid and cool weather conditions. Young growing shoots and leaves are covered with white powdery growth. Infected leaves turn purplish and drop. Flower buds may fail to open. It can be checked by dusting 80% sulphur or spraying 0.1% Kerathane fungicide.