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Crop Cultivation Guidance



The Potato, a native of South America occupies a largest area any single vegetable in the world. It has a special value as food. The consumption of potato per head is very low in India as compared to that of Western Countries. Potato belongs to family Solanaceae and botanical name is Solanum tuberosum.


There are many varieties of potatoes either introduced into or bred in India some of the important newly improved varieties are described below.

Kufri Sinduri:

Medium maturing (31/2 to 41/2 months) with round, light red medium-sized tubers. It is suitable for cultivation as a main crop variety in plains as a replacement to Kufri Red and other later varieties.

Kufri Chandramukhi:

Early maturing (mature 10 days earlier than upto-date), with attractive, oval, white tubers. It degenerates so slowly and keeps well in storage. It gives high yields and cooks easily and does not degenerate rapidly in the plains.

Kufri Khasi-Garo:

An early maturing variety, possessing a good degree of field resistance to late blight and moderate resistance to early blight and viruses, fit for growing in the hilly regions of Assam.

Kufri Chamatkar:

An early bulking variety with uniform-sized, shining and smoothed tubers.

Kufri Shectorn:

A front-resistant variety, suitable especially for the Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and U.P. It can be planted late in the northern plains due to its high degree of resistance frost.

Kufri Jyoti:

A widely adaptable, fertilizer-resistant variety possessing a high degree of field resistance to late blight disease in the foliage and also a good degree of tuber resistance to the same disease. This variety is also resistant to the wary disease and moderately resistant to cercospora leaf blotch.

Kufri Alankar:

A very early-tubering photo insensitive variety capable of giving high yields, suitable for cultivation in the plains of Northern India.

Kufri Jeewan:

A late-maturing high-yielding variety, possessing a high degree of field resistance to late blight, resistance to the wart and Cercospora diseases.

Climate and Soil:

Potato can be grown well in fertile and well-drained soil. Potato grows well in soil having pH 4.8-5.4. Heavy soil should be avoided. The short day conditions are highly favourable for economic yield of potato crops. To secure good for potato a day length of 12-13 hours is needed and night temperature 200 C increase tuberization.

Planting Habits:

The potato belongs to family Solanaceae. It is a harbaceos annual and propagated by tubers, the thick underground stems which are called stolons. The stolon are slender, arising from buds, length and diameter varies with varieties. Eyes on the potato are buds and one or more develops into stem and leaves. Stem may be green, purple or light violet. Leaves are compound with opposite leaflets. Stems and leaves prostrate or erect. Height of plant one to two feet depending on variety. Roots are shallow and superficial, extend upto two feet. Flowers are about an inch in diameter, corolla white to purple or violet. Fruit is a berry but commonly not developed, spherical, half to one inch in diameter, purple or black. Seeds are about the size of mustard, hetrozygous, not use for propagation except for breeding purpose. The size, shape, colour of skin of tubers varies with variety. The flush colour may be white, light yellow, pink or light blue.


Potato is grown in rabi season during October to December with seed rate 1.40 kg for 10 sq. meter area. The planting distance for potato crop is 50 X 20 and 60 X 25 cm.

Application of Manures and Fertilizer
F.Y.M.  250-400 g/hectare
           120-160 kg/hectare N
            80-120 kg/hectare P
            80-120 kg/hectare K

To be incorporated into the soil 3 to 4 weeks before planting half dose of nitrogen full dose of P2O5 and K2O as basal dressing at planting and remaining nitrogen dose is given at the time of earthing up.


Potato needs irrigation at frequent intervals, depending upon the soil and climatic conditions. Usually 6 irrigation is sufficient. Pre-sowing irrigation followed by 5-6 light irrigations.


Potato is harvested from the time it is sufficient size until the vines are fully ripe. The average yield varies from 20 to 30 tonnes per hectare. The best method storing potato is in cold stores at 2.20 C to 3.30 C and at 75 to 80% relative humidity.

Plant Protection


  1. Cut worms – Spray Dursban 20 EC or apply Phorate in soil.
  2. Caterpillar – Spray Thiodan or BHC (10%)
  3. Aphid -- Spray Rogor or Nuvacron or Malathion
  4. Jassids -- Spray Metasystox (0.1%)
  5. Diseases

  6. Nematodes -- Fumigate soil with D-D
  7. Early Blight – Spray Dithane M-45 (0.2%)
  8. Late blight -- Spray Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 or Difolatan or Zineb.
  9. Scab --Disinfect tubers with Agallol-6 or Mercuric fungicides.
  10. Virus disease – Use certified seeds. Spray Metasystox (0.1%) or apply Timet or Furadon in furrow before planting.