Origin and history:


The field pea is believed to be native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe and to western Asia comprising Italy and south western Asia and India.


Ecological requirements:

Climatic requirements:

The crop prefers about 22 to 25 0 C at the germination stage and moderately lower temperature of 15 to 18 0C during flowering and fruiting period but frosty weather is fatal for the crop. High humidity associated with cloudy weather results into spread of fungal diseases like damping off and powdery mildew etc., but light rains followed by bright sunshine is good for the crop.

Soil requirements:

Pea needs medium soil type ranging from sandy clayey loam free from soluble salts. The soil must be well drained as water logging is extremely harmful for the growth, development and even or survival. It does well under neutral soil reaction with a soil pH of 6.5 to 7.5.


Land preparation:


Field preparation is very similar to any Rabi crop but the soil should not be very pulverised and fine, however, it must be free from all established weeds and stubbles of the kharif crop grown earlier. Under rainfed conditions it must be treated with 20-25 kg. Of 5% BHC or heptachlor dust so that there is no attack of termites. The bed should be thoroughly levelled, especially in case of irrigated condition for proper distribution of irrigation water.


Fertilizer management:


It is recommended to apply about 15-20 tonnes of well decomposed organic manure like compost or F.Y.M. in case of very light soils supplemented with 15-20 kg nitrogen/ha, 60-80 kg phosphorus, 20-30 kg potash and 15-20 kg zinc sulphate (once after three years) per hectare. The entire quantity of manures and fertilizers should be basal placed about 10-15 cm deep in furrows (3 to 5 cm below the seed layer).


Water management:


The soil should have sufficient moisture at the time of sowing so that the seeds may germinate well. The crop, after germination, needs two light irrigations which should be given at 45-50 days and 75 days after sowing or first at flowering and second at pod filling stage of the crop. In all it needs about 153.7 mm water.


Weed control:


Two hand weedings at 20 and 45 days after sowing. In case if the weeding is not possible, use of chemical should be done. Basalin at 0.75 kg a.i./ha may be applied as pre-plant soil incorporation or Tribunil at 2.5 kg/ha as pre-emergence spray which may be a substitute for Basalin and it controls all the weeds.


Plant protection measures:



The crop is mostly attacked by wilt, root-rot and powdery mildew which may be controlled by adopting the following measures:


Wilt and root rot:

  1. Select wilt resistant varieties.
  2. Avoid early sowing to avoid high humidity and high temperature which are congenial for the diseases.
  3. Always use treated seed with Ceresan or Captan by taking 2 to 2.5 g of chemical/kg seed.
  4. Adopt crop rotation.


Powdery mildew:

  1. Select powdery mildew resistant varieties, like Rachana, Hans, etc.
  2. Avoid late sowing of the crop.
  3. The crop should be sprayed with any of the wettable sulphur compound like Sulfex, Elosal or Hexasual by using 0.3 per cent solution. The disease needs two or three sprayings-first when disease appears, second after a fortnight and third, if required, after a fortnight of the second spraying.
  4. Dusting with sulphur may be adopted if spraying is not possible.



Pests are not very common in peas but sometimes the crop is attacked by shoot fly, caterpillar, and aphids. Of these, the shoot fly and caterpillars may be controlled by spraying of 0.05 per cent. Thiodan at fortnightly interval. Two to three spraying will be enough to control the pest. The aphids may be controlled by spraying with 0.4 per cent of Menazon or 0.25 per cent of Dimecron at 8-10 days intervals.


Characteristic features of some of important pea cultivars:


A. Table peas:

Early December : Developed from T-19 x Early Badger is an early pod producing variety. The pods/plucking may be started in 55-60 days time. It produces 6-7 cm long green pods weighing about 80-100 q/ha green pods.

Arkel: The picking of pods may be started from 55-60 days from sowing. The pods are 8-10 cm long containing 5-6 seeds in them. It gives 70-100 quintals pods/ha in 3 pickings. It is an Europian early variety.

Bonneville: It is an American introduction requiring about 80-85 days tome for picking to start. Pods are 7-8 cm long containing 7-8 seeds in them. It may produce about 130-140 q green pods/ha.

Early Badger: It is an American introduction. The picking may be started from 55-60 days after sowing. The pods are 6-7 cm long having dark green colour it may produce about 80-199 q/ha (green pods).

Asauji: The picking may be started from 75-85 days after sowing. Pods are 5-6 cm long having 5-6 seeds weighing about 90-110 q/ha in all.

N.P.29: Picking may be started from 75-85 days after sowing. It yields about 100-120 q/ha (green pods).

Jawahar Pea-4: First picking may be done in 65-70 days after sowing. Pods are 7-8 cm long with 5-8 seeds yielding about 80-90 q green pods/ha.

T.19: Pods may be picked up from 75 days after sowing yielding 80-100 q/ha.

T 56: Similar to T.19 but it may yield about 100-120 q green pods/ha

Madhu: Pod picking may be started from 60th day after sowing.


B. Field peas:

Type-163: Developed in U.P. through selection from Bulandshahar local which requires about 125-135 days time to mature. It produce white flowers, white shining bold seeds. About 25-30 q seeds/ha may be obtained.

Rachana: Developed from Kanpur, U.P., it is resistant to powdery mildew. The crop takes 120-130 days to mature and may produce 22-30 q/ha seeds which are round and white.

V.L.I: Developed from Almora, U.P. requiring about 165 days to mature. It produces white flowers and light yellowish round seeds. The yield is about 25-30 q/ha.

Swarn Rekha: Developed in Bihar which requires about 125 days to mature. It produces 15-22 q round smooth seeds of cream colour/ha.

P.G.3 : Developed in Punjab having white flowers and creamish white wrinkled seeds. It gives an average yield of 25-35 q/ha.

Hans: It matures in 110-120 days yielding about 30-40 q small, round and white seed/ha.

E.C.33866: This is an early maturing variety (in 90 -110 days) and is most suited to high intensity cropping as catch crop. It may produce 25-30 q seeds/ha.

D.M.R.11 : This is resistant to powdery mildew and matures in 130 days and produces 25-30 q/ha.

Harbhajan: A selection from exotic variety which matures in 90-100 days and may yield about 15 q/ha having yellowish-white seeds.

Kinnauri: A selection from Kinnaur local of H.P. is suitable for medium hills and may yield 15-25 q/ha white, round and attractive seeds.

Pant P.5 Developed by T10 x T163 in 1985 it matures in 140 days. It is resistant to powdery mildew and may produce 15-20 q/ha white, round, smooth and bod seeds.

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