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Crop Cultivation Guidance



Jute (Corchorus capsularis L and C.olitorius L.) is one of the most important cash crops of eastern India. Exported as goods and as raw fibre. The crop is grown in West Bengal, Assam, Northern Bihar, south-eastern Orissa, Tripura and eastern Uttar Pradesh.The fibre is chiefly used for manufacturing hessian, sacking and carpet backing. Jute is also used for making mats, tarpaulins, ropes and twines. The jute sticks are largely used as fuel and also for making gunpowder, charcoal, as a raw material for coarser paper. Resin-bonded pressed jute sticks make durable hardboard.

Climate and soils:



Jute requires a warm and humid climate, with temperature fluctuation between 24o C and 37 o C, the optimum being around 34 o C. Constant rain or water logged conditions are harmful. In the seedling stage, water-logging is not tolerated. Alternate sunshine and rainy days are most conducive to growth.
The new grey alluvial soil of good depth, receiving silt from the annual floods, is best for jute. Widely grown in sandy loams and clay loams, with varying clays are unsuitable. The optimum pH range is around 6.4



JRC 321, JRC 212, JRC 7447, D 154, JRC 1108, JRO 632, JRO 878,JRO 7835,JRO 620, and C.G'.


Jute requires a clean, clod-free field with fine tilth. The land is ploughed, cross ploughed, and planked several times. All weeds are thoroughly removed.


Sowing in midlands and highlands starts with showers in March or April and continues till early June in the western part of the jute belt. For broadcast sowing, the seed rates are 10 and 7kg per hectare for capsularis and olitorius varieties. Seedlings, are thinned out in broadcast, plots. This operation is carried out in two instalments, once when the seedlings are about 10cm and subsequently when they are about 15cm tall. In row cropping  a single row seed drill is used to sow the capsularis varieties 30 cm apart and the olitorius varieties 20cm apart and 7.5cm. Sowing is always done shallow.

Fertilizer :

Acid soils require amendment with 3-7 tonnes of lime in 3 years. Compost or farmyard manure requirement at the rate of 4-7 tonnes per hectare. Phosphorus (P2O5) and potash (K2O) are applied as basal nutrients, whereas nitrogen (N) is top-dressed in two installment- N (40-80 kg per ha for capsularis varieties, 20-60kg per ha for olitorius varieties)- P (half of the quantity of N) and K (quantity equal to N).


Wedding specially in the early stage, is a must. For a broadcast crop, the pre sowing application of 2,2,3,3 tetrafluorpropionate of sodium proved to be beneficial. Smothering the weeds between rows with a wheel-hoe helps to mulch the soil.

Plant protection:


Jute semilooper 
The growth of the plants is checked, the late sown crop is more vulnerable; peak incidence occures in July to mid -August
Spray 0.05% Endosulfan or 0.1% Carbaryl

Jute stem weevil
Grubs attack nodal joints below the leaf base and the side of the leaf base; sometimes internodes, petioles and buds are also attacked 
Remove and destroy stubble alternative host plants and infested plants; spray as for the semi looper above

Hairy caterpillar
The larvae feed gregariously on the leaves and in severe cases completely defoliate the plants.
Dust 5-10% Heptachlor to the early stage of caterpillars.


Stem rot or dry rot
Roots become brown and discoloured below the bark; brown spots are formed in the collar region on which black dot-like pycnidia appear; the collar rots, the affected plant sheds its leaves and dies. 
Grow resistant varieties: practise crop sanitation; treat seed with Captan @ 6g/kg

Powdery mildew 
White powdery patches appear on the undersurface of the leaves; the corresponding upper portions just above patches become pale and brown
Dust the crop with finely powdered sulphur @ 15 kg per hectare. 

Solerotial disease
A white weft of mycelium is formed near the base of the plant on which white to reddish-tan spherical sclerotia appear.
Practise crop rotation and sertilize the soil. 


Harvesting and Storage:

Jute may be harvested any time between 120 and 150 days. Early harvesting gives finer fibre of good quality. The compromise between quality and quantity is found in harvesting at the early pod stage or around 135 days of cropping. Harvesting is done by cutting the plants at or close to the ground level. In flooded land, plants are uprooted. The harvested plants are left in field for 2-3 days for the leaves to shed. The average is 13 quintals per hectare. 27 quintals in the case of the capsularis varieties. the maximum potential being 40 quintals and 37 quintals respectively.