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Crop Cultivation Guidance



The Guava, Psidium guajawa is one of the important fruit crops grown in India. It is originated in tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and today is commercially grown in South Asia, Hawaiin Islands Sri Lanka, Cuba, Myanmar and India. In India, the guava is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

The guava is a very hardy tree and it is grown with a less inputs. It is rich source of vitamin C, pectin and minerals. The fruits are also used to make products like jam, jelly, cheese, juice, nectar, etc. The tree lives longer and bears profusely under wide climatic and soil conditions, easily and with less expenses.

Climate and Soil:

The guava is grown widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions and succeeds under a wide variety of climatic conditions. It favours distinct winters and tolerates high rainfall and drought conditions. Fruit setting and fruit development are poor if the temperatures are high and humidity is low.

The guava is grown on heavy clay soils to very right sandy soils as well as on those, which are commonly considered suitable for fruit production. The trees are hardy and can stand the high E.C. and pH. However, well drained condition is necessary for survival and production.


The important cultivars (varieties) are as under: -
Sardar (Lucknow-4a)
Allahabad Safeda
Banarasi Surkha
Apple colour
Red fleshed
Out of these first two are grown on large scale.


The guava is propagated by seeds, grafts, airlayers and ground layers. The method, ground layering is easy, economical and followed on large scale. Use of 3000 to 5000 ppm or a mixture of IBA and IAA has been found very effective in early and profuse rooting.

Planting and Season:

The guava can be planted at any time of the year. However, June planting followed by January planting is more successful and very well adopted.

A spacing of 7x7 or 6x6 recommended and the pits of 0.75x0.75x0.75 or 1x1x1 m are dug at the selected spacing and filled with organic manures, superphosphates and neem cakes well grown layers, uniform in rooting and short growth are used for planting.


During initial period of 2/3 years from planting, interspace is kept weed free by regular weeding. Short duration crops, preferably vegetables are taken.

Care of young orchard
  • Gap filling should be done within a month.
  • Supporting and training to young trees is necessary to get uniform stand of all the plants.
  • Necessary provision for wind breaks is useful. Plants like susbenia, Mulberry, etc. is done at the planting of main crop.
Special Horticultural Treatments

Training and pruning : The guava plants are trained to a single stem. No branching is allowed upto the height of 1 m on main trunk. Pruning to young plants is necessary to have uniform and well balanced growth and shape. Judicious pruning is also recommended prior to flowering of selected bahar. Pruning increase the productivity and makes the various operations like spraying, harvesting easy.

Bahar treatment: This consists of withholding of water prior to flowering of bahar. Normally there are three bahars i.e. Mrig bahar, Hast bahar and Amba bahar, out of which only one is selected depending on climate and market. Root pruning and shoot pruning are also followed as a supporting treatments at bahar treatment.

Bending of branches: This practice is only followed in certain erect growing types to improve flowering.


Flood irrigation, the trees are regularly irrigated during the fruiting season – from flowering to harvest of the crop. Excess of water adversely affects the quality of the fruits besides it favours excessive vegetative growth and invites fungal diseases. Drip irrigation and fertilization are the latest techniques, which economise the use of water and fertilisers. However, during the vegetative growth period moisture is necessary and the system should be on as per requirements.

Application of manures and fertilisers

The amount of fertilisers and manures depend on soil, variety, yield potential and age of the tree. The guava responses well to organise and biofertilisers and balanced NPK. Many times deficiencies of Mg, Z & Mn are seen which can be rectified by spraying with cheleted micronutrients or micronutrients mixtures. The fertilizers schedule is modified by adopting periodical soil and tissue analysis data. Well grown trees require 360g nitrogen, 180g phosphorus and potash/tree/year, in addition to 60 to 100kg of organic matter. Excess of chemical N should be avoided to get a good quality.

Plant protection

The important pests are – Fruitfly, scale insect, Bark eating caterpillars, Mealy bug and important diseases are – Fruit canker, Anthracnose, leaf spot, wilt, fruit and rot. Proper training, optimum pruning, favourable selection of bahar, clean cultivation, adopting preventative measures and timely sprays are followed to protect the crop from diseases and pests. Integrated pest management is always better than only chemical control.

Harvesting and yields

The vegetatively grown plants start bearing at 3rd year and continue to give economic yields yearly for 30 years. The well grown and well cared trees gives annual yield from 100 to 150kg. The fruits should be harvested at full maturity but in semiripe conditions.

Post harvest management, storage and marketing

The fruits are highly perishable and should be marketed within two days of harvest. Over ripe fruits will not stand a long distance market. Some hormones like Mh, GA have been reported to increase self life of fruits. The fruits can be stored for four weeks in cold storage maintaining the temperatures 8 to 100C and relative humidity 80-90%.