Export of India’s Groundnut Increased in Vietnam
Exports of groundnuts have increased by over a third on robust demand from countries such as Vietnam and Indonesia and a bigger domestic crop.
Groundnut News: Digital Farming Practices Increase the Groundnut Yield by 30%
Hyderabad: Using cloud technology and business intelligence, farmers in Andhra Pradesh’s Kurnool district increased their per hectare groundnut yield by 30%.
Groundnut News: Scientists Cracks Ancestor Genome of Groundnut.
A scientific breakthrough on the DNA sequencing of the groundnut promises the development of improved groundnut varieties with enhanced traits such as increased pod and oil yield, drought and heat tolerance and greater disease resistance.
hypogaea L.) is important oilseed crop and oil content of the seed varies from 44-50%,
depending on the varieties and agronomic conditions. It is also used in soap making, and
in manufacturing cosmetics and lubricants, olein, stearin and their salts. Kernels are
also eaten raw, roasted or sweetened. They are rich in protein and vitamins A, B and
members of the B2 group. The cake can be used for manufacturing artificial
fibre. The haulms are fed (green, dried or silaged) to livestock. Groundnut shell is used
as fuel for manufacturing coarse boards, cork substitutes etc. Groundnut is also of value
as a rotation crop. The production are concentrated in the four states of Gujarat, Andhra
Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Orissa have
The crop can be grown successfully in places receiving a
minimum rainfall of 500mm and a maximum rainfall of 1,250mm. The rainfall should be
distributed well during the flowering and pegging of the crop. The groundnut cannot stand
frost, long and severe drought or water stagnation.
The crop does best on sandy loam and loamy soils and in
black soils with good drainage. Heavy and stiff clays are unsuitable for groundnut
cultivation as the pod development is hampered in these soils.
'Junagadh-II', 'TMV-2', 'Pol-2', 'AK 12-24', 'Kopergaon-3', 'KG-61-240' (Jyothi).
'TMV-6', 'TMV-8','Kopergaon-1', 'C-501'.
'Punjab-I', 'GAUG-10','Kadiri-71.1', TMV-1', 'TMV-3', 'S-230', 'Karad4-11'
For a kharif crop, with the onset of rains
in May-June, the field is given two ploughing and the soil is pulverized well to obtain a
good tilth. Harrows or tiller can be used for cultivation. If a field is infested with
white grubs, chemicals, such as Heptachlor or Chlordane, are drilled at the rate of 25kg
per ha. before final harrowing. For the irrigated crop, beds of convenient size may be
made, depending upon the topography of the land, the nature of the irrigation source and
the mode of lifting water.
Groundnut is raised mostly as a rainfed kharif crop, being sown from May to June, depending on the monsoon
rains. It is sown as late as August or early September. As an irrigated crop it is grown
to limited extent between January and March and between in May and July. Well-filled
kernels should be selected and treated with 5g of Thiram or 3g of Captan per kg of
kernels. The quantity of well-developed seeds required per hectare about 110 kg for semi
spreading and spreading varieties and 120kg for the bunch varieties. The kharif crop is
sown with a seed drill or with a suitable planter at a depth of 8-10 cm. for semi
spreading and spreading varieties, the spacing between at he adjacent rows varies for
m30-60cm and within the row from 10-15cm. For the rainfed bunch groundnut the inter-row
spacing vary between 20 and 30cm and the intra-row spacing between 10 and 20cm.
for rainfed crop is 6.25 tonnes farmyard manure and 10-25kg nitrogen (N), 20-40kg
phosphorus (P2O5) and 20-40kg potash (K2O) per hectare.
For irrigated crop 12.5 tonnes farmyard manure and 20-40kg nitrogen (N), 40-90kg
phosphorus (P2O5) and 20-40kg potash (K2O) per hectare.
The application of nitrogen (N) in two equal splits doses, one before sowing and the other
30 days after sowing. The application of a culture of Rhizobium as seed treatment is
beneficial in increasing nodulation and nitrogen fixation. The application of gypsum at
500kg per ha at the pegging stage will enhance pod formation.
The kharif crop is
caught in a long spell of drought, especially at the pod-formation stage, supplemental
irrigation is given. For the irrigated groundnut, the frequency of irrigation depends on
the soil texture, and the interval between irrigation ranges from 8-12 days. The
peg-formation stage is critical.
For controlling weeds,
and also to keep the soil in a friable condition, the crop should generally receive a
hand-weeding and one or two hoeings, with bullock-drawn implements, the first about three
weeks after sowing and the second and the third about a fortnight and a month later. No
interculture would be done after the pegs have commenced going underground. Earthing up
can be done in the case of bunch and semi-spreading types for facilitate the maximum
penetration of the pegs into the soil. Weeds can also be controlled effectively with Lasso
or Tok-E-25 weedicide at the rate of 5 litres in 500 litres of water per hectare as a
pre-emergence soil spray within two days of sowing groundnut.
Caterpillars mine the
tender leaves and later fold the adjacent leaves to feed within. Pest active during July
to December; drought, with occasional showers favourable.
Dust 4% Carbaryl,
Vector of a virus disease (rosette), dry and warm weather, favourable.
Spray 0.03% Dimethoate
or Phosphamidon, Monocroptophos or Methyl-demeton
The adults emerge immediately after the monsoon; grubs feed on roots and kill the plants.
Grubs very difficult to
kill; the application of 10% Phorate granules is to be effective.
Reddish brown discolouration on the stem, spreading and the plant collapsing; tissues blackened and
numerous tiny black scleriotia are formed
Practise crop rotation,
treat seed with Agrosan GN or Ceresan or Thiram @ 3gram per kg of seed.
Tikka disease or leaf spot
Dark spots surrounded by a bright-yellow
ring on the leaves and sometimes on the petiole and the stem; premature leaf-shedding is
Spray with Brestan or with 4:4:50 Bordeaux mixture or with 0.2% Ziram or Zineb or Maneb.
Leaves reduced in size
and malformed; suppression of the internodes; partial sterility.
disease free seeds, rogue out diseased plants.
Harvesting and yield
The prominent symptoms
of maturity are the yellowing of leaves, the shedding of the older leaves, the development
of the proper colour of the testa and a dark tint inside the shell. The bunch and
semi-spreading varieties are usually harvested by hand pulling when there is adequate
moisture in the soil. The spreading types, on the other hand, are harvested by digging or
by ploughing or working a blade harrow. The pulled out plants are stacked for a few days
for drying and are stripped afterwards.