flowers.jpg (13258 bytes)
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Introduction
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Varieties
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Planting and fertilizer
bulet.jpg (4805 bytes) Important practices
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Plant protection
Caterpillars and red spider mites
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes)


Fusarium wilt and leaf-spot
              - Control
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes)

Harvesting and yield





Perpetual carnations (Dianthus caryophyllyus) can be planted round the year under greenhouse environment if temperature is maintained at 20-250C.


Among standard type cultivars, Master, Tanga, Sonsara, Laurella, Solar, Dakar, Raggio di Sole, Cabaret and Isac are most promising, while Bagatel, Cherrybag, Fantasia, Picaro, Ondelia, Sintonia and Macarena are spread types.

Planting and fertilizer

Plant density of 20-30 plants/m2 is optimal (1.5 –2.0 lakh/ha). A fertilizer dose of 40 g nitrogen (N), 20 g phosphorus (P2O5) and 10g potash (K2O) is ideal. Liquid feeding of carnation plants with nutrient levels of 190 ppm N and 156 ppm K, and 1 ppm B with each irrigation water results in high grade carnation. Overhead sprinkling is quite effective and economical than soil surface irrigation. At bud appearance stage, over-head sprinklers should be replaced with soil surface system.
Important practices
Pinching, disbudding and deshooting are important practices followed in the standard carnations. Leaving 5-6 nodes on the plant should generally do pinching. In case of standard type, terminal buds are retained and all auxiliary buds are removed and vice-versa in spray type. Plants need support 2-3 layers of nylon mesh (10x10 cm size)] when 45 cm in height. Supplementary lighting from dusk to dawn with 10 watt incandescent bulbs hung at 1.5 m above the beds 1m apart during winter produce early flowers of better quality.
Plant protection
Caterpillars and red spider mites

These pests are the important threat to the crop.

  • Control

Spraying with sevin is effective in controlling the pests.

Fusarium wilt, stems rot and leaf-spot

These are major diseases and which require effective control.

  • Control
In case of wilt sterilization of soil and treatment of seeds before sowing are quite effective in controlling the disease. For stem rot spraying of Bavistin, Derosmal @ 0.05 - 0.1% should be used. Spraying the plants with Dithane-M45 or Ziram @ 0.2% is effective in controlling the leaf spot disease.

Harvesting and yield

Standard carnations are harvested at paint brush stage and sprays when 2-3 upper flowers in the inflorescence are open and remainders showing colour. The flowers can be stored at 2-4 0C remains for longer time. Yearly production of 300-400 flower/m2 is ideal and economical.