Optimum Use /avoid Excessive Use


Water is carried from the main outlet of the irrigation project through the main canal, branches canals, minors and distributories for irrigating lands. This distribution of water from the projects is looked after by the Irrigation Department. Beyond the distributory head it is the responsibility of the beneficiary cultivators to take water to their fields.


  1. Tendency of the cultivator to over irrigation of his fields.
  2. Water is not charged on volumetric basis and hence there is no incentive to use it economically.
  3. No attention is paid beyond distributory outlets to breaches in the bunds and water flowing out, because there is no penalty for such breaches.
  4. Water courses beyond distributory outlets are not given proper grade and water runs too fast causing soil erosion, wastage of water and water logging.

Effect of Excess Water

  1. Poor tillering,
  2. poor culm strength,
  3. poor nutrient recovery and poor yield,
  4. unworkable soil conditions,
  5. impedes root respiration and activity,
  6. affects the development of underground storage tissues,
  7. produces toxic products on anaerobic decomposition of organic matters,
  8. increases loss of nutrients,
  9. decreases the efficiency of soil-applied nutrients and pesticides,
  10. affects crop management including harvesting, transport and cleaning.

Management to Avoid Excessive Use

In order to increase irrigation efficiency, it is very important to avoid excessive use. In doing so attention should be paid to

  1. survey and mapping the areas,
  2. field channels,
  3. methods of applying water,
  4. drains,
  5. flow, sprinkle, drip surface,subsurface.

Each crop has an optimum range of water requirement and critical stage of growth is important. Therefore, water must be used in a proper way, with due care and caution as a lack of it may create dryness and too much cause devastating flood; both may cause loss of lives.