Optimum Use /avoid
Water is carried
from the main outlet of the irrigation project through the main canal, branches canals,
minors and distributories for irrigating lands. This distribution of water from the
projects is looked after by the Irrigation Department. Beyond the distributory head it is
the responsibility of the beneficiary cultivators to take water to their fields.
- Tendency of the cultivator to over
irrigation of his fields.
- Water is not charged on volumetric
basis and hence there is no incentive to use it economically.
- No attention is paid beyond
distributory outlets to breaches in the bunds and water flowing out, because there is no
penalty for such breaches.
- Water courses beyond distributory
outlets are not given proper grade and water runs too fast causing soil erosion, wastage
of water and water logging.
Effect of Excess
- Poor tillering,
- poor culm strength,
- poor nutrient recovery and poor yield,
- unworkable soil conditions,
- impedes root respiration and activity,
- affects the development of underground
- produces toxic products on anaerobic
decomposition of organic matters,
- increases loss of nutrients,
- decreases the efficiency of
soil-applied nutrients and pesticides,
- affects crop management including
harvesting, transport and cleaning.
Management to Avoid
In order to
increase irrigation efficiency, it is very important to avoid excessive use. In doing so
attention should be paid to
- survey and mapping the areas,
- field channels,
- methods of applying water,
- flow, sprinkle, drip
Each crop has an
optimum range of water requirement and critical stage of growth is important. Therefore,
water must be used in a proper way, with due care and caution as a lack of it may create
dryness and too much cause devastating flood; both may cause loss of lives.