It includes the buildings on the farm is known as farm stead. It includes the buildings like residential quarters, labour quarters, bullock shed, cow barm, grain storage structures, implement shed, garage etc. the area of farm houses usually varies from 3-5% of total farm area, farmhouses should be located near the centre of the farm or in the middle of the long side. Location on one side or even at a corner near a road is always helpful in procuring the farm supplies and in disposing of farm produce and facilitate better social life and protection, common water supply arrangements etc. A site having high elevation and good natural drainage should be selected. The farm stead should be located near the source of permanent water supply.
Arrangement of Farmhouse
Farm House Design
A farmhouse should be design to provide maximum utility and comfort. The various rooms should be so located as to provide adequate comfort and minimum time and energy wastage in going from one to another.
Rooms For Farmhouse
A typical bedroom of 3.6 x 3m will accommodate two single beds of 1 x 2m. cross ventilation with one side to prevailing breeze is desirable features in design.
It is generally serves as the room for recreation and social gathering. The minimum size of drawing room is 4.5 x 3.6m but some people prefered to have a large room of about 6 x 4.5m to serve as a drawing cum dinning room. Drawing room should generally open to front porch, kitchen and bedroom.
It is generally placed near the living room but away from bedroom. It should be equipped with sink or many built-in-racks for storage of utensils and supplies. Floor space of kitchen usually varies from 9.3 to 14 sq.m. Store room and fuel storage space should be attached to the kitchen. Kitchen should have cross-ventilation and one of the window and door must be directly open to kitchen garden. Kitchen must be eastern location if possible so that the rays of morning sun can enter in it.
For Indian families bathroom and lavatory should usually be separate. In bathroom shower or direct tap bath arrangement should be made. If water supply is not for 24 hrs one small water reservoir should be equipped to the toilet room. A hanger for towels and rack for soap etc. are very useful. For lavatory flush arrangement is essential. Generally the squatting type of water closet (W.C.) is very common than the European type. Near to this room there should be wash basin with a wall mirror and built-in-storage for cosmatics, shaving etc. A convenient size of this is 1.2 x 1.8m each.
It should be situated near the kitchen. For small family, a store of about 3 x 1.8m is adequate. It should provided with rows of shelves on all sides.
It should open only to the drawing room and to front varandha and must have independent access to the common toilet room unless a special toilet room is attached to it. A common size for guestroom is 3.6 x 3m.
Doors and Windows
Double leaf doors and windows are usually preferred. The doors used in living room and bedroom should be 2.1 x 0.9m. Where as for kitchen and bathroom it is 2 x 0.75m. Wooden doorframes with only three pieces of 10 x 7.5cm size each are preferred than steel frames. The bottom of the doorframe is removed in order to provide a smooth surface with the floor. The window dimension generally preferred is 1.2 x 0.9m. The bottom of window is at 0.75m above the floor surface so that the top of window will at same level as that of doors. Both wooden and metal frames are in common use.
Floor and Ceilings
High ceilings are always cooler in summer but results in more expenditure in wall construction. A single storey building will have its ceiling at height of 3.3m but two storey buildings usually have a first floor of 3m height and second of 2.7m height. The roof and intermediate floors are usually made of rein forced brick work or reinforced concrete work. Ground floor is made of single layer stone or brick and is plastered from top to provide smooth surface.
Bricks and stones are the common materials used to make walls. Generally 22.5cm thick walls laid in cement or lime mortar is stronger enough. However it is better to have a 37.5cm wall that can support the ceiling as well as its own load. All partition walls should be properly protected from weather either by plastering and white wash or by simple painting at brick joints. Generally the partition walls are made 22.5 cm or less thick.