Agriculture News and Jobs

For Clean, Smart and Profitable Farming.

  • Agriculture News.Jobs
  • Agriculture Jobs
  • India agriculture News
  • Agriculture News



Chrysanthemums are next to roses in popularity and have been in cultivation for more than 2,500 years.

more info ...

Greenhouse production technology for important flowers


Normally one-year-old budded plants having at least 3 canes on rockstocks like Rosa indica var. odorata or R.canina or R.manetti are most ideal for greenhouse cultivation.

Cultivars :’Golden Gates’, ’Grand Galla’, ’First Red’, ’Kiss’, ’Konfetti’, ’Mercedez’, ’Ravel’, ’Noblesse’, ’Vivaldi’ and ’Starlite’.

Planting :Optimal planting time is October-December. The planting density should be between 7-13 plants/m2 (50-60 thousand bushes/ha area). Planting should be done preferably in 2-row system.

Temperature requirement : The greenhouse temperature is generally maintained from 200C or 210C on cloudy days and 240C –280C on sunny days. However, the temperature range of 15-270C is optimum.

Fertiliser dose : Liquid fertilizers containing 200 ppm nitrogen and 150 ppm potassium plus iron and magnesium as needed, can be applied with good results in a wide range of soil conditions. Binding of unproductive shoots leads to more number of basal sprouts.

Harvesting and yield :
Red and pink cultivars are harvested when first 2 petals are beginning to unfold and calyx is reflexed below the horizontal lane.

Yellow cultivars are harvested slightly earlier and white cultivars slightly later than red and pink types.

After cutting the stem ends are dipped in 200-500 ppm citric acid or aluminium sulphate and placed in cold storage at 10C till grading. Stem ends are recut, bunched in 20’s and placed in preservative solution with sucrose up to 2%.

Flower yield of 250-350 stems/m2 is considered to be ideal.

Flower yield can be increased by spraying BAP 50-100 ppm before flowering flush. Burning of saw-dust during winter months in the morning hours (7-10 AM) increases flower yield and quality significantly.


Perpetual carnations (Dianthus caryophyllyus)

Cultivars : Among standard type cultivars, Master, Tanga, Sonsara, Laurella, Solar, Dakar, Raggio di Sole, Cabaret and Isac are most promising, while Bagatel, Cherrybag, Fantasia, Picaro, Ondelia, Sintonia and Macarena are spray types.

Temperature requirement : temperature is maintained at 20-25 0C.

Planting :
Plant density of 20-30 plants/m2 is optimal (1.5 –2.0 lakh/ha).Can be planted round the year under greenhouse environment.

Fertilizer dose : A nutritional dose of 40 g N, 20 g P2O5 and 10g K2O is ideal. Liquid feeding of carnation plants with nutrient levels of 190 ppm N and 156 ppm K, and 1 ppm B with each irrigation water results in high grade carnation. Overhead sprinkling is quite effective and economical than soil surface irrigation. At bud appearance stage, over-head sprinklers should be replaced with soil surface system.

Practices followed : Pinching, disbudding and deshooting are important practices followed in the standard carnations. Pinching should generally be done by leaving 5-6 nodes on the plant. In case of standard type, terminal buds are retained and all auxiliary buds are removed and vice-versa in spray type. Plants need support [2-3 layers of nylon mesh (10x10 cm size)] when 45 cm in height. After pinching, spraying BAP (100 ppm) increases production.

Harvesting and yield : Standard carnations are harvested at paint brush stage and sprays when 2-3 upper flowers in the inflorescence are open and remainders showing colour. The flowers after harvest should be pulsed with 10% sugar + 4 mM STS for 10-12 hr and at 2-4 0C. The flowers are kept in sugar 2% + 0.5 mM STS for prolonging vase-life.

Yearly production of 300-400 flower/m2 is ideal and economical.


Lilies, especially Asiatic and Oriental types are most fascinating, in international floriculture trade.

Cultivars : Connecticut King, Gran Paradiso, Elite, Pollyanna, Prato and Solemio among Asiatics, while Star Gazer, Marco Polo and Casablanca in case of Orientals are highly promising. Easter lily (Lilium longiflorium) var. Osant (white) is also grown under polyhouses.

Forcing : Forcing lily flower for normal durations, the bulbs require cold treatment at 2-40C for 6 weeks in case of Asiatic hybrids and 8 weeks for the Oriental ones. It is possible to use "frozen-in" bulbs which are kept at 10C after pre-cooling treatment for off-season flowering. A night temperature of 16 0C with a day temperature below 21 0C inside the greenhouse is recommended for forcing.

Planting : The best time of planting hybrid lilies under north Indian climate is from mid-September to mid-December. Planting density depends on cultivar, bulb size and time of the year, with a range of 25-60 bulbs/m2.

Light requirement : Light is very important factor for lily culture. High light intensity in summer reduces the stem length and therefore 50% shade nets are recommended to cover the crop. Low light intensity in winter leads to flower abortion and abscission. Supplementary lighting during winter increases yield, stem sturdiness and quality of flowers.

Plants require liquid feeding or use of controlled released fertilizers. Supporting plants with nylon mesh is advisable.

Harvesting and yield : Asiatic hybrids take 8-10 weeks, while Orientals 14-16 weeks from planting to harvesting, but `frozen –in’ (Eskimo) takes less time The blooms are cut when the lower most flower bud is fully coloured but not open. Cut lilies could efficiently be started both dry (sealed in plastic bags) or wet (1/10 portion in 25 ppm silver nitrate) at 10C cold storage temperature up to 4-6 weeks provided they are pulsed with 0.2 mM STS + 10% sucrose for 24 hr.


Chrysanthemum is a very popular flower crop of commercial importance. Chrysanthemums are grown in 2 ways for cut flowers, depending upon market demand.

Disbudded inflorescence : All flower buds except terminal ones are removed to allow one inflorescence/stem to develop. If the bloom is an incurved or reflexed type and in between 10 and 15 cm in diameter, is usually referred as standard.

Spray inflorescence : The entire cyme is allowed to bloom but very often the central inflorescence (oldest) is removed at the time colour begins to show in the ray flowers. These groups are usually known as pompon or spray chrysanthemums.

Light and temperature requirement : Chrysanthemum is primarily a typical short day plant and normally cannot form flower buds when day length exceeds 14 1/2 hr. Light and temperature are important environmental factors influencing growth and development. Chrysanthemums are broadly classified into 3 groups on the basis of their response to temperature. Thermozero varieties flower at any temperature ranging 10-270C but most consistently at a constant 160C night temperature. Thermopositive varieties require higher temperature (270C) for bud initiation and lower temperature inhibit completely. Thermonegative varieties flower at any temperature between 10 and 270C, but flowering is delayed at higher temperature.

Cultivars : Selection of cultivars is very important while doing greenhouse cultivation. Spiders are preferred in the Netherlands and Germany while single spray types in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, UK and Japan prefer decorative types of mums.

Most promising cultivars in the international trade are Snow Ball, Snow Don White, Mountaineer, Sonar Bangla, Bright Golden Anne, and Chandrama among large flowering types while Ajay, Birbal Sahani, Lehmans, Nanako, and Sonali Tara in case of small flowering types as sprays are most common.

Planting : July-August is ideal time of planting chrysanthemum in north India. However, if controlled photroperiod facilities are available planting can be done round the year.

Planting density varieties from 32 to 56 plants/m2.

Practices : Pinching and disbudding are most important cultural practices for the production of quality blooms. Growth regulator spraying of B-9 (Alar) or Cycocel 2-3 blooms of good quality.

Harvesting : Standard types are generally harvested when outer ray florets cease to elongate, while decorative when petals in the centre of topmost flower are fully developed. Single and anemones are harvested when flower is fully developed.


Cultivars :Jaffa, Sangria, Rosula, Oprab, Romona, Salina, Tecora and Starlight.

Planting : Planting medium should be adequately porous and well-drained. The optimum planting, density recommended for large flowering cultivars is 8-10 plants/m2. Two –row or 4-row planting systems are generally used. Planting can be done round-the-year but preferably during September-October. The plants should be left undisturbed for 2 years for flower production (no separation of clumps). Treating plants with GA3 (100 ppm) results in early flowering having long stems.

Temperature requirement : The temperature during day time should be 16-200C and 120C during nights.

Harvesting and yield : The harvesting stage is critical as the flowers should not be cut before the outer row of flowers show pollen, or the flowers will wilt and close at night. Optimum storage temperature (wet) for gerbera is 40C. The flowers could be stored efficiently up to 4 weeks. Most modern cultivars of gerbera yield 250-300 good quality flowers/m2/year.