|Climate and soil|
|Planting & Season|
|Care of Young Orchard|
|Special Horticulture Practices|
|Application of Manures & Fertilizers|
|Harvesting & Yields|
|Post Harvest Handling|
|Some Additional Features|
|The grape is the most important crop grown in the world. Mostly it grown for making wines and preparation of raisin and then as a table fresh fruit. While in India, it is mainly grown for table use. Grape cultivation is believed to have originated near Caspian Sea, however, Indians know grapes since Roman times. Total area under grapes in India is about 40,000 ha, distributed mainly in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.|
present, grape is the most important fruit crop grown commercially with the objectives.
Fresh grapes are a fairly good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins like B. Famous champagne and other desert wines are prepared from grapes.
ideal climate for grape growing is the Mediterranean climate. In its natural habitat, the
vines grow and produce during the hot and dry period. Under South Indian conditions
vines produce vegetative growth during the period from April to September and then
fruiting period from October to March. Temperatures above 10 to 400C influence
the yield and quality. High humidity and cloudy weather invite many fungal diseases,
besides lowering the T.S.S. Acid ratio.
The grape is widely adopted to various soil conditions, but the yield and quality reach to the highest on good fertile soils have pH 6.5 to 8.5, organic carbon above 1.0%, free of lime and having a medium water holding capacity. Early but medium yields with high T.S.S. are harvested on medium type of soils.
2. Raisin purpose varieties Thompson seedless, manik chaman, sonaka, Black corinth, Black corinth, Black monukka, Arkavati, Dattier
3. Wine varieties Chardonnay, Cabernet S aurignnon, Bangalore, Blue Muscat, Blanc, Pinot Noir, Pinot Blane, White Riesling, Merlot.
|Grapevine is most commonly propagated by hard-wood cuttings, though propagation by seed soft wood cutting, layering, grafting and budding is specific to certain situations. Occasionally, unrooted cuttings are also planted directly in the field in the pre-determined position for a vine. For hardwood cuttings, IBA 1000ppm treatment is useful for early, better and uniform rooting of cutting. For grafting Dog ridge, Ramsey, 1616, 1613,1103P, So4, etc. are used. Sometimes the rootstocks are planted in the field and there they are grafted with suitable varieties.|
|Planting and Season:|
|Usually planting is done from October onwards till January. Rarely planting is also done during June-July where the monsoon is late. Monsoon planting is avoided mainly for avoiding diseases on young growth. For planting N-S direction the trenches are opened. The size of trench may be 60 to 75cm. deep wide. Then these trenches are filled with FYM, organic manures, 5:10:5 organic mixtures, single super phosphates, biofertilisers, neem cakes, etc spacing for planting is maintained depending on soil type, variety and method of training. The distance between two rows may be 2 to 3m while distance between vines within a row will be half of that, accommodating vines from 2000 to 5000 per hectare.|
following aspects are important: -
Gap filling: To be done preferably during one month after planting.
Recut: Basal cut keeping 2/3 buds is taken one month after planting with an objective to get uniform new growth.
Supporting : The bamboo supports are fixed for vine support and young growing points are trained on them
Weeding: The vine rows are weeded out, twice/thrice depending on the intensity of weeds.
Irrigations Regular-depending on soil and season are given.Fertilizers are applied with cow during slurry to hasten the growth.Suitable plant protection measures are following depending on incidence of pests and diseases.
|Care of young orchard|
vines takes about 1.5 to 2 years after planting to bear the first crop. During this period
the care of young vines is taken as under:-
Training : The vines are trained first on bamboo and then on support trellised. A suitable method of training is adopted.
Pruning : Initial pruning is done only for training i.e. for developing trunk, arm, fruiting, canes, etc.
|Special Horticultural practices|
and training: The vines are trained on a suitable prellise i.e. T Y H or bower and
regularly pruned twice in a year. First annual pruning is done during the month of April
to get the new vegetative growth while second pruning to get the crop is done during the
month of October. While doing April pruning 0 to 2 buds on arm are kept while doing
October pruning 5 to 10 buds on fruiting cane are kept. Use of HCN is done to have early,
uniform and higher sprouting particularly after winter pruning is made.
Girdling: Vines are trunk girdled at bloom period to increase the fruit set, to increase the weight and T.S.S. and also to enhance maturity.
Use of hormones: The following plant hormones at various stages and concentrations are usually used to increase the yield and to improve the quality of bunches.
|Grape is strictly irrigated perennial crop and regularly irrigated. For flood irrigation, 5-7 days during summer 8-10 days during winter and 15-20 days during rainy season interval is maintained while for drip irrigation, 40-50 L * 30-40, 20-30 L of water per day per vine, water is applied.|
|Application of manures and fertilisers|
nutrition and use of chemical organic and biofertilisers is essential to get a good crop
of good quality every year. About 700 to 900 Nitrogen, 400 to 600 Phosphorus and 750 to
1000 Potash Kgs/ha/y are applied to get about 30 to 35 tonnes produced yearly.
The use of vermiphos, biomeal, mixtures of 5:10:5 ormichem, micronutrient mixtures have proved useful in grape production. Fertilizers are applied mainly twice in a year at the time of pruning, besides occasional foliar sprays are also practiced. Now-a days, Fertilization techniques is being popular in grape growers.
shoots, leaves, blossoms and berries are attacked by many fungi and insect pests, besides
some nematodes are also cause damage to roots.
Major fungal diseases Anthracnose, Powdery mildew, Downy mildew, Dead arm, Botraytis and Botrodiplodia.
Viral diseases Fan leaf disease
Major Insect pests Flea beetle, Mealy bug, Red mite, Thrips, caterpillars.
Soil born pests Nematodes, phyloxere, white ants, white grub.
Control measures: A number of systemic and contact fungicides and pesticides are available and are to be used as per following local schedule.
Besides pests and diseases the crop is to be protected against weeds. Cyprus, doob, grass, parthenium oleraceae are some of the common and important weeds found in vineyards. They are controlled by frequent weedings /growing cover crops or by using chemical weedicides as Gramaxone, Basaline, Roundup, Glycel, etc.
Grape bunches are also to be protected against hot sun, Cold wave, dry air spell, Dew and Storm. Some chemical some physiological and some mechanical means methods are adopted.
|Harvesting and yields|
grape harvest season starts in February and continuous up to end of April. Well matured
bunches having at least 180Brix are harvested.
Av. Yields-- For seedless varieties - 20 to 30 t/ha/y
For seeded varieties - 40 to 50 t/ha/y
|Post Harvest handling|
grapes are packed in 2 to 4 kg-corrugated boxes. Grape guards, pouches are kept inside the
boxes for distant markets. Pre-cooling and use of grape guards are the musts for cold
storage and export markets.
Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Ahmedabad, Ludhiana, Patna, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, are the main market places in the country.
|Some additional features:|
Day by day increased quantities are exported to Europe, Middle East, Dubai, etc.
Winemaking: Wine making and champagne making are profitable and started at few places in Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Raisin making: A good quality black and golden raisins are prepared from the varieties. The raisins are increasing demand from Indian as well as from outside countries.