Mango

Mango
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Introduction
bulet.jpg (4805 bytes) Requirement
Climate and Temperature
Soil
bulet.jpg (4991 bytes) Varieties
Orchard establishment and care
Pit Filling
Planting
Intercrops/ covercrops
Fertilizers
Irrigation

Plant Protection

Harvesting
Export potential

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Mango (Mangifera Indica) is the most ancient among the tropical fruits and believed to have originated in the Indo Burma region. India is the major mango producing country in the world with an annual production of 8.50 million tonnes from an area of one million hectares. Mango is basically a tropical plant but endures wide range of temperature. It grows well under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. It gives profitable yield in semi-arid conditions, especially with irrigation.

Requirement

  • Climate and Temperature

The mango flowers and fruits during dry season, which is characterized by absence of rainfall. Rain or cloudy weather at the time of flowering causes considerable damage to mango as it adversely affects flowering and fruit set and increases incidence of pests and diseases. It grows where temperature drops as low as 00C. And as high as 460C. However, it thrives best at temperature around 270C. It grows well both in low (25 cm) and high (250 cm) rainfall areas. However with annual rainfall around 75 cm, it grows without irrigation.

  • Soil

The coconut palm can grow in a wide range of soil conditions ranging from laterite, alluvial, red, sandy loam having pH range from 5.5 to 8.0. Soil should be fertile and good drainage without any hard substratum within one of the surface.

Varieties

The important commercial mango varieties for different parts of India are:

North India: Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay, Green, Somar Bahist

Eastern India: Fazli, Krishna Bhog, Himsagar, Gulab Khas, Jardalu

Western India: Alphonso, Kesar, Pairi, Mankurd, Fernandin.

South India: Bangalore (Totapuri), Neelam, Baneshan, Badami, Suverna rekha.

Newly Evolved Varieties: Mallika, Amrapali, Arka Aruna (Hy 10), Arka Puneet (Hy 13), Arka Anmol, Ratna, Sindhu, Sai Sugandh.

Orchard establishment and care
  • Pit Filling

Pits of 1 x 1 x 1 m are dug at a distance of 10 x 10 meter at plant site in summer. Pits are filled with top soil and 5 to 6 baskets of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and 2.5 Kg. Super Phosphate. To avoid termite attack 100 gm of 10 percent sevin or chlorudane dust is mixed in the pit.

  • Planting

Planting of mango grafts of desired variety is done with commencement of rains while in heavy rainfall regions. Planting is best done after censation of heavy rains. Selected healthy grafts with smooth union and true to type, obtained from reliable source should be planted. At the time of planting, the graft is carefully placed in the pit after removing the Polythene bag and soil is packed firmly around the roots. It is irrigated immediately and stalked with bamboo sticks. Young plants are trained by removing lower branches upto half meter from ground level, only 4 to 5 well spaced branches are allowed to grow in different directions to form main limbs of the Tree. Shoots arising on stem below graft joint are removed regularly.

  • Intercrops/ covercrops

In young orchards, vegetables and other low growing crops like groundnut, blackgram, green gram, cowpea are grown as intercrops/ covercrops. Cultivation helps to check the weed and improves the growth of the trees besides giving some income to the growers till mango plants start bearing 4-5 years after planting.

Fertilisers

A young orchard be supplied with 10 kg FYM + 100 Kg Nitrogen (N) + 50 g Phosphorus (P2O5) + 100 g Potassium (K2O) per tree in the first year and it should be increased with age. The 10 year old tree should get FYM + 1 Kg N + 500 g P2O5 + 1000 g K2O. If irrigation is available, additional dose of 500 g N be given in the month of February March.

Irrigation
Newly planted grafts be irrigated at 3-4 days interval for 6 months, thereafter interval should be 8 10 days depending upon climate Irrigation interval of 10-15 days is adequate for 1-5 year old plants. For bearing trees, irrigation should not be given prior to flowering for 2-3 months as it promotes vegetative growth and reduces the crop. When the fruits have developed to the size of a marble, irrigation can be started and continued at weekly or fortnightly intervals. This helps to reduce fruit drop, promotes rapid fruit development, early maturity and improves quality. However, mango is mostly grown as rainfed crop.

Plant protection

Mango hoppers, insect pest and powdery mildew disease are the major problems on mango, to control both these dusting with 10 percent Carbaryl dust plus sulphur 300 mesh in the ratio of 1:1. Three to four times at fortnightly intervals starting from prior to the emergence of first inflorence is recommended. Trunks of the tree should also be dusted thoroughly.

Harvesting
Mango fruits mature in 3-4 months from flowering, Fruit colour changes from dark green to light green on maturity. Harvesting should be started after few fruits drop, during morning hours. Individual fruits are clipped with 1.5 cm stalk using mango harvester. Harvested fruits are kept on gunny bags under shade. Under sized, bruized and infested fruits are sorted out and healthy fruits are graded into 2 3 grades depending upon colour, shape and size and packed in wooden or corrugated boxes.
Export potential
India is the largest producer of mangoes in the world accounting for over 63% of total world production. It accounts for over 60% of the total value of fruits exported from the country. A substantial quantity of this fruit is also utilised by the fruit processing industry. Maharashtra has clear advantage due to exclusive production of Alphonso variety, the share of which in the export is very high.