TROPICAL & SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS : Pineapple
Pineapple is tropical
fruit. It is a good source of Vitamin A and B and rich in Vitamin C and calcium. It
contains phosphorus and iron. The fruit contains a special enzyme called
Bromelin which digests protein. Fruit is used for table purpose, preparations
of juices, slices, tit bits, squash, jam, mixed jam, candy etc. Dried waste after
extraction (pomace) is valuable cattle feed. Other byproducts are alcohol, calcium
citrate, citric acid and vinegar. Leaves of pineapple are used for fibre preparation.
Fruit of pineapple is
botanically called sorosis. Botanical name of pineapple is Ananas comosus
and family is Bromeliaceae.
is tropical fruit. It requires moderate temperature and high humidity. The optimum
temperate range is 210C to 230C. At low temperature, no fruit bud
differentiation takes place. A well-distributed rainfall of 150 c. m. per year is
Crop is grown on light to medium soils. Soils should be well drained. Sandy loams,
laterites and slightly acidic soils with pH 5.5 to 6.00 are suitable for crop cultivation.
Pineapple is propagated by vegetative method, suckers, slips, crown and disc are used for
its multiplication. Slips are best for planting.
planting rainy season is the best, planting is done at beginning of monsoon in dry region
and at the end of the monsoon in high rainfall area. Planting is done either in flat beds
or in shallow trenches. The planting distance in the single row system should be 25 x 60 x
90 cm and in double row system 25 x 30 x 90cm.
Pineapple is heavy feeder. It requires 600 kg N, 400 kg P and 400kg K per ha. Nitrogen is
given in two split doses, first at begining of monsoon and second in the month of
and Yield: It matures in both 15 to 20 months after planting. Usually flowering
takes place from February to April and fruits are ready from July to September. The fruits
are harvested when they just become yellow. An average yield is 10 to15 tonnes per
Gaint kew or kew:-
It is one of the most important cultivars of Pineapple . It is ideal for canning industry.
Flesh of the fruit is yellow, fibreless and juicy. The fruit is cylindrical in shape with
average weight 1.9 kg . It is a late maturing variety.
Queen :- It is the
second important cultivar which is grown in our country. It is an early maturing variety,
used as table variety. It is mostly grown in Bengal region. The fruits are small
cylindrical, with average weight 1.2 kg. Fruit colour is golden yellow while the flesh is
deep golden yellow
Mauritius :- It is
a mid season variety. Fruits of this variety are medium sized with yellow and red skin.
India has a wide variety of climate and soil on which a wide range of Tropical,
Sub-tropical, Temperature and arid zone fruit crops can be grown in different regions.
advantages of fruit culture are :
From an unit of
land comparatively more income is realised by growing fruits than growing any agronomic
crop like wheat, rice, maize, etc.
Calorific value of
food from an area of fruit is more than cereals e.g. banana is 16 times more than wheat.
Fruit farming is
the bad rock of several industries like extracting of essential oil, pectin, production of
spices, fruit preservation industries, etc.
provides employment to the rural people throughout the year.
fruit crops helps in maintaining ecological balance and checks the pollution.
Being rich in
minerals and vitamins fruit crops assume great importance as nutritional security of the
Based on the
temperature requirements and response to different climatic conditions, fruit crops have
been classified into three broad groups ;
are those which do not endure severe cold but can tolerate warm temperatures of
about 40 deg. Cent. These plants need strong sunshine, moderate warmth, fair degree of
humidity and a very mild winder. They cannot stand frost or snow. Papaya, banana,
pineapple, sapota and cashew belong to this group.
like oranges, guava, mango, litchi, pomegranate, fig and Amla are intermediate in
character. They need warmth and moderate humidity and can also tolerate mild winters.
These plants are versatile in their ability to stand extremes of rainfall, humidity,
sunshine and mildly tolerant of winter upto frost stage.
Fruits: are commonly found in cold regions enjoying a mild and temperature climate. These
fruit trees endure cold and go to rest or dormancy by shedding off all their leaves during
winter, apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, Cherry, and grapes are examples of such fruits.
classification indicates the broad differences in climatic needs of various fruit plants.
This does not necessarily mean that a plant belonging to one climatic zone does not grow
in other zones. For instance, grape vine is a fruit which goes to dormancy in temperate
regions and remains evergreen in sub-tropical regions. It is grown in both these climatic
zones as a result of accumilization, cultural manupulations and breeding new varieties