Chrysanthemums are next to roses in popularity and have been in cultivation for more than 2,500 years.
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Greenhouse production technology for important flowers
Normally one-year-old budded plants having at least 3 canes on rockstocks like Rosa indica var. odorata
or R.canina or R.manetti are most ideal for greenhouse cultivation.
Cultivars :Golden Gates, Grand Galla, First Red, Kiss, Konfetti, Mercedez, Ravel, Noblesse, Vivaldi and Starlite.
Planting :Optimal planting time is October-December. The planting density should be between 7-13
plants/m2 (50-60 thousand bushes/ha area). Planting should be done preferably
in 2-row system.
Temperature requirement : The greenhouse temperature is generally maintained from 200C
or 210C on cloudy days and 240C 280C on sunny days.
However, the temperature range of 15-270C is optimum.
Fertiliser dose : Liquid fertilizers containing 200 ppm nitrogen and 150 ppm potassium
plus iron and magnesium as needed, can be applied with good results in a wide range of
soil conditions. Binding of unproductive shoots leads to more number of basal sprouts.
Harvesting and yield :
Red and pink cultivars are harvested when first 2 petals are beginning to unfold and calyx is reflexed below the
Yellow cultivars are harvested slightly earlier and white cultivars slightly later than red and pink types.
After cutting the stem ends are dipped in 200-500 ppm citric acid or aluminium sulphate and placed in cold
storage at 10C till grading. Stem ends are recut, bunched in 20s and
placed in preservative solution with sucrose up to 2%.
Flower yield of
250-350 stems/m2 is considered to be ideal.
Flower yield can be
increased by spraying BAP 50-100 ppm before flowering flush. Burning of saw-dust during
winter months in the morning hours (7-10 AM) increases flower yield and quality
Perpetual carnations (Dianthus caryophyllyus)
Cultivars : Among standard type cultivars, Master, Tanga, Sonsara, Laurella, Solar, Dakar, Raggio di
Sole, Cabaret and Isac are most promising, while Bagatel, Cherrybag, Fantasia, Picaro,
Ondelia, Sintonia and Macarena are spray types.
Temperature requirement : temperature is maintained at 20-25 0C.
Plant density of 20-30 plants/m2 is optimal (1.5 2.0 lakh/ha).Can be
planted round the year under greenhouse environment.
Fertilizer dose : A nutritional dose of 40 g N, 20 g P2O5 and
10g K2O is ideal. Liquid feeding of carnation plants with nutrient levels of
190 ppm N and 156 ppm K, and 1 ppm B with each irrigation water results in high grade
carnation. Overhead sprinkling is quite effective and economical than soil surface
irrigation. At bud appearance stage, over-head sprinklers should be replaced with soil
Practices followed : Pinching, disbudding and deshooting are important practices
followed in the standard carnations. Pinching should generally be done by leaving 5-6
nodes on the plant. In case of standard type, terminal buds are retained and all auxiliary
buds are removed and vice-versa in spray type. Plants need support [2-3 layers of nylon
mesh (10x10 cm size)] when 45 cm in height. After pinching, spraying BAP (100 ppm)
Harvesting and yield : Standard carnations are harvested at paint brush stage and
sprays when 2-3 upper flowers in the inflorescence are open and remainders showing colour.
The flowers after harvest should be pulsed with 10% sugar + 4 mM STS for 10-12 hr and at
2-4 0C. The flowers are kept in sugar 2% + 0.5 mM STS for prolonging vase-life.
Yearly production of 300-400 flower/m2 is ideal and economical.
Lilies, especially Asiatic and Oriental types are most fascinating, in international floriculture trade.
Cultivars : Connecticut King, Gran Paradiso, Elite, Pollyanna, Prato and Solemio among Asiatics, while
Star Gazer, Marco Polo and Casablanca in case of Orientals are highly promising. Easter
lily (Lilium longiflorium) var. Osant (white) is also grown under polyhouses.
Forcing lily flower for normal durations, the bulbs require cold treatment at 2-40C
for 6 weeks in case of Asiatic hybrids and 8 weeks for the Oriental ones. It is possible
to use "frozen-in" bulbs which are kept at 10C after pre-cooling
treatment for off-season flowering. A night temperature of 16 0C with a day
temperature below 21 0C inside the greenhouse is recommended for forcing.
The best time of planting hybrid lilies under north Indian climate is from mid-September
to mid-December. Planting density depends on cultivar, bulb size and time of the year,
with a range of 25-60 bulbs/m2.
Light requirement : Light is very important factor for lily culture. High light
intensity in summer reduces the stem length and therefore 50% shade nets are recommended
to cover the crop. Low light intensity in winter leads to flower abortion and abscission.
Supplementary lighting during winter increases yield, stem sturdiness and quality of
Plants require liquid feeding or use of controlled released fertilizers. Supporting plants with nylon mesh is advisable.
Harvesting and yield : Asiatic hybrids take 8-10 weeks, while Orientals 14-16 weeks
from planting to harvesting, but `frozen in (Eskimo) takes less time The
blooms are cut when the lower most flower bud is fully coloured but not open. Cut lilies
could efficiently be started both dry (sealed in plastic bags) or wet (1/10 portion in 25
ppm silver nitrate) at 10C cold storage temperature up to 4-6 weeks provided they are
pulsed with 0.2 mM STS + 10% sucrose for 24 hr.
Chrysanthemum is a very popular flower crop of commercial importance. Chrysanthemums are grown in 2 ways for
cut flowers, depending upon market demand.
Disbudded inflorescence : All flower buds
except terminal ones are removed to allow one inflorescence/stem to develop. If the bloom
is an incurved or reflexed type and in between 10 and 15 cm in diameter, is usually
referred as standard.
Spray inflorescence : The entire cyme is allowed to bloom but very often the central inflorescence (oldest) is removed at the time colour begins to show in the ray flowers. These groups are usually known as pompon or spray chrysanthemums.
Light and temperature requirement : Chrysanthemum is primarily a typical short
day plant and normally cannot form flower buds when day length exceeds 14 1/2 hr.
Light and temperature are important environmental factors influencing growth and
development. Chrysanthemums are broadly classified into 3 groups on the basis of their
response to temperature. Thermozero varieties flower at any temperature ranging 10-270C
but most consistently at a constant 160C night temperature. Thermopositive
varieties require higher temperature (270C) for bud initiation and lower
temperature inhibit completely. Thermonegative varieties flower at any temperature between
10 and 270C, but flowering is delayed at higher temperature.
Selection of cultivars is very important while doing greenhouse cultivation. Spiders are
preferred in the Netherlands and Germany while single spray types in Denmark, Sweden and
Finland, UK and Japan prefer decorative types of mums.
cultivars in the international trade are Snow Ball, Snow Don White, Mountaineer, Sonar
Bangla, Bright Golden Anne, and Chandrama among large flowering types while Ajay, Birbal
Sahani, Lehmans, Nanako, and Sonali Tara in case of small flowering types as sprays are
July-August is ideal time of planting chrysanthemum in north India. However, if controlled
photroperiod facilities are available planting can be done round the year.
varieties from 32 to 56 plants/m2.
Pinching and disbudding are most important cultural practices for the production of
quality blooms. Growth regulator spraying of B-9 (Alar) or Cycocel 2-3 blooms of good
Standard types are generally harvested when outer ray florets cease to elongate, while
decorative when petals in the centre of topmost flower are fully developed. Single and
anemones are harvested when flower is fully developed.
Cultivars :Jaffa, Sangria, Rosula, Oprab, Romona, Salina, Tecora and Starlight.
Planting : Planting medium should be adequately porous and well-drained. The optimum planting,
density recommended for large flowering cultivars is 8-10 plants/m2. Two
row or 4-row planting systems are generally used. Planting can be done
round-the-year but preferably during September-October. The plants should be left
undisturbed for 2 years for flower production (no separation of clumps). Treating plants
with GA3 (100 ppm) results in early flowering having long stems.
Temperature requirement : The temperature during day time should be 16-200C
and 120C during nights.
Harvesting and yield : The harvesting stage is critical as the flowers should not be
cut before the outer row of flowers show pollen, or the flowers will wilt and close at
night. Optimum storage temperature (wet) for gerbera is 40C. The flowers could
be stored efficiently up to 4 weeks. Most modern cultivars of gerbera yield 250-300 good