Lawn is one of the most important elements in the garden design, attractive at all times and providing a pleasant surrounding for house, trees, shrubs and flowers. One of the greatest charms of a garden is a beautifully kept, clean shaven, verdant lawn. To the designer grass is considered as the background on which the garden picture is built. It is the centre of social life, which is always restful to the eyes. A patch of good velvety green lawn is desirable close to the house to secure a greater breadth and dignity to a place. Planting of any kind should not be encouraged which may encroach the broad expanse of lawn area before the house. The lawn or a portion of it should always be seen from the best parts of the house, the choicest shrubs or the richest terrace gardens will satisfy in the same manner. The size of the lawn will depend very much on the availability of space, whereas the shape should be such that it creates an attractive appearance. The quantity of grass and the various levels of the lawns would all be settled with exactness in an architecturally treated garden but in a more natural and landscape portions of the lawns would all be settled with exactness in an architecturally treated garden but in a more natural and landscape portions of the ground there are a few conditions, the observance of which will make lawns pleasing or otherwise. Once the lawn is established it takes little effort to keep it growing beautifully.
Rock garden is an interesting feature in the garden. In most of the gardens they are laid out in such a non-artistic way and badly contrived that it looks out of place and has no utility of any symmetrical balance with the garden. The common plan of heaping together a mass of stone and mineral curiosities into a grotto-like structure and sprinkling the whole with soil is the outcome of misunderstanding of the first principles. In laying out a garden to bring nature in home and like other features introduce rocks in the garden and feel happy to see plants growing well on rocks. In nature rocks serve as flowerpots. So any attempt to imitate this natural condition should have naturalistic approach and good technical thinking. It is better to select rocks from material, which is porous, and the soil in rock garden must be well drained. The rock garden should be as far removed from a formal environment as possible. The aim should be to imitate a piece of nature. If associated with walls, green houses or other artificial surroundings the illusion falls to pieces. It is also better to keep it away from the neighbourhood of trees, one great charm of the rock garden is its variety and that can be maintained by providing all the conditions of aspect and exposure demanded by various plants.
The rock garden may take the shape of a mountain or the stony slope of a hill, a rock crest or a peak. But whatever may be the plan in mind, it must have definiteness of scheme. All rock gardens should have planting pockets and compartments filled with rich soils on the slopes and should have adequate drainage. All rocks in the ground level should be natural out crop. Rocks of different shapes and sizes are combined and rooted in the ground to get the desired landscape effect. The actual outline and dimensions of the rockery depend entirely on the chosen site. A fairly steep slope or different characters facing southeast is a good spot for laying out a rock garden and it should not end abruptly. It is better to let it gradually merge into the general surface of the ground some detached pieces of rock being placed on the level beyond the raised part of the rock garden, just as we find in nature. Careful selection of plants is bulbs suitable for growing in rocks which give long flowering season and beautiful colour effect are desirable.
Roses are grown in the garden with great love and sincerity in isolated beds or where the space permits they may be grown together in a special garden, termed the rosary or rosarium. Roses can be grown in a place by itself without a monotonous effect. The most common method is to cut the rose beds in grass and there is much to be said in favour of grass as a setting for roses. The beds should not be elaborate in outline nor too small. The groups should show a geometrical relation between their component beds. It is not unusual to carry a path through the rose garden, or to set it where two paths intersect at right angles. The point of intersection is sometimes marked by a vase. When a path or paths leads into the rose garden, the beds may be separated by gravel, thereby excluding grass altogether.
Establishing a rose garden involves three things, and these are (a) design, (b) choice of varieties and (c) preparation of soil and planting. Design will depend very much on available space in sunny location and personal taste. This may consist of a number of beds grouped together leaving paths and space of green velvety grass in between. This pleasant setting brightens the display of rose flowers of different types of roses Hybrid Tea roses may be grown in simple beds and Floribunda and Standard roses in border or along side the long paths, whereas Climber and Rambler roses on walls, rustic arches or fences. With various types and enormous varieties a complete garden may be laid out by using roses as planting material.
In landscape gardening use of water in their setting plays a prominent role for many obvious reasons. Garden designers have always produced the most satisfactory results, when they have been able to bring water in some way into their compositions. It is beautiful and attractive at all times and providing a pleasant ever-changing surface varying with the change of season and weather. The murmuring stream or dripping waterfall attracts the ears and eyes. The beauty of waterside planting is enhanced by charming reflections. Lovely hybrids of water lilies and water loving plants are gaining much importance in modern gardening. If in any site of a garden, natural stream, pond or lake exists, water garden is at once assured by planting suitable plants. If no such natural facilities exist, an artificial pool must be formed in a sunny spot. It should fit in with the overall garden design available space and individual choice will determine the size and shape of the pool.
The music of flowing water, the beautiful forms, which can be made to rise and fall and the association of architectural designs, account for the deserved popularity of the fountain. The success of fountain, however, depends upon obtaining the water at sufficient pressure and skilful plumbing. If surrounded by a large basin of pond, upright jets may be adopted, for smaller fountains, some simple form of bubbles or jets thrown out from the side of a central arrangement would generally be found most satisfactory.
A sheet of water is not only a welcome feature in the landscape, but also proves useful for boating and fishing in almost all seasons. The beauty of a lake also depends upon reflection of the objects upon the bank. Smoothness and softness of effect have been recommended, as the best treatment especially when it is required to form a part of a formal scheme, is one of the most costly affairs in the whole practice of garden-craft.
When a rock garden combines with water garden it gives more attractive appearance. A formal garden of this type should have a conventional shape of pool with bold stone slab on the sides surrounded by straight paths a geometric bed. The informal type which is most desirable and should be the keynote in the rock garden.
Though not an important feature in garden design, bog garden is interesting if facilities to form such type of ground naturally exist at the site. It is not always advisable to level the low lying areas as it creates opportunity for growing some special kind of plants without taking help of any artificial means. Bog garden can be laid out in a marshy spot, partly in sun and in shade and plants can be selected depending upon the moisture on the ground. Deposition of organic matter markedly improves the growth of the plants. It should be specially designed in order to fit the overall plan of the garden.
With the increasing popularity for informal design in gardening, laying out wild garden is also getting importance in garden planning. It is the desire of man for direct communication with nature and naturalizing home living with no touch of artificiality. Combinations of some plants are very attractive in wild garden e.g., fine leafed plants, ferns, climbers, grass, trailing shrubs and flowers if grown together in formal beds of rough undulated places. A wild garden will show its best when the plants have grown well and this type of garden should be attempted in large garden area. Designing a wild garden requires imagination and careful selection of plants depending on the growth habit of the plants.
Terrace garden is increasingly becoming an essential feature of modern garden. This is an area of paving between the garden and the house and it may be of various sizes and attractive shapes. In order to improve the look of the garden the terraces are constructed for several reasons e.g., (a) for cultivation of plants in pots or raised beds, (b) an outdoor area for sitting and dining (c) dirt-free childrens play area etc.
Paving of terraces may be made by flagstone, native stone, brick concrete, wood or gravel. It is important to select the right colour and texture of paving material when planning a terrace. This creates interest in small area, which brings beauty of growing things close to paving room and dining room windows at rear living area. Plant material for this area should be chosen with great care.
Modern gardens are specially designed and adapted to provide maximum safety, fun and enjoyment for children of all ages. The elements of contended plays are sand pits, sand, water, grass, rounded pebbles, a small flowering tree, miniature gardens and other game equipment. A planned yard in any semi-shady corner of the garden containing the above includes childrens need in gardens.
The garden should be laid out in a sunny place and enclosed by walls and good high hedge. A convenient water supply is a very important item and good walks in the kitchen garden as elsewhere are necessary. The size of kitchen garden is also a matter, which needs careful consideration and for convenience of working it should be divided into quarters. Kitchen garden as a whole seldom presents an attractive appearance, it should be located in such a place so that it does not spoil the garden picture. A delightful and attractive approach may, however, be made by way of arched opening in the wall. Cut flowers for the house may also be grown in this site. Formal design is the best for kitchen garden.
It is one of the most interesting and popular methods of gardening. It widens the scope of making gardens indoor as well as outdoor and adds year round colour in the garden with minimum effort. Here lies the scope of using attractive containers of various types of different shape and sizes; simple shape and subdued colour are, however, desirable. For outdoor display large containers are better, small containers can be grouped for bold effect.