Propagation - Fruit plants
In case of fruits like
Pomelo, Limes, etc they bear fruits in 3 to 4 years, Litchi and mango take six to eight
years before a bumper crop can be gathered. The plants raised by vegetative propagation
will come to flowering and fruiting much earlier than the one obtained from seed. They
might bear at the very first year after planting, but precocious bearing should not be
encouraged. It will hamper the vigour of the fruit tree. Where seedlings are planted, the
fruiting period is protracted and one is never certain of obtaining a good type from a
seedling unless careful selection has been practised. Plants propagated by vegetative
means retain the good qualities of their mother without any deterioration. For instance, a
seedling Kaghzi lime of a thin skinned mother, may have a thick rind and little juice
while one propagated by gooties will perpetuate the thin skin character. Always buy from a
reliable source as foliage differences cannot be depended on for judging the quality and
type of the plant. Because to discover after eight years that a Langra Mango tree bears
small acid fruits will be no recompense from having purchased the graft a few paisa
cheaper from an unauthentic source.
- Banana (Musa paradisiaca)
propagation sucker is the most popular planting material. Among the suckers which arise
from the rhizome, the sword suckers (having narrow sword-shaped leaves) are better than
the water suckers (with broad leaves) and should be used.
- Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)
The plants are
propagated by seeds, air-layering, inarching and side grafting.
Oranges in India can
be mainly divided into two groups
oranges (Citrus sinensis)
The typical examples of sweet oranges in our country are Malta, Mosambi, Sathgudi and
Washington Navel, etc., and of Mandarine group are all
types of loose skinned oranges commonly known as Nagpur Santra, Assam Santra, Coorg Santra
and Sikkim orange etc. Unlike the Mandarine orange, sweet oranges are tight skinned and
Sweet oranges: Sweet
oranges are usually propagated by budding.
Mandarine oranges (C.
Budding on rough lemon
and seed propagation is better prevalent in Santra oranges.
Seed propagation and
budding are usually practised in sour lime. Sweet lime is propagated both by stem cutting
Plants should be grown
from gooties or buddlings.
- Custard apple (Anona squoamosa)
appreciably in their characters. Grafting by budding and inarching are usually characters.
Grafting by budding and inarching are usually done on Bullocks Heart (Anona
reticulata) plants, which is an allied species.
The grapes are usually
propagated by stem cuttings. Seed propagation is used fro breeding purposes.
It is propagated by
seed as well as by air-layering, ground layering and inarching.
- Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia)
It is propagated by
seed and inarching.
- Litchi (Litchi chinensis)
Air layering is the
usual method of propagation. Ground layering, budding, grafting and inarching are also
practised. Plants, which are propagated by gooties, bear fruits in 4-5 years.
Mango can be
propagated by seed and by vegetative means such as budding, grafting, inarching, etc.
Vegetatively propagated plants usually give good quality fruits. They also bear much
earlier than the seed propagated plants.
Papaya is propagated
by seed, which should be sown at the early monsoon. Seedlings of 30 to 45 days age are
20-30 cms. Height should be transplanted in monsoon 2.5 to 4 metres apart.
- Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
Pineapple grows from
suckers, stumps, side shoots or crowns, but is usually propagated from slips and suckers.
Pineapple suckers will give fruit a year ahead of plants raised from fruit crowns.
The plants are usually
propagated by seed. Seedlings bear in 6-8 years but give best result after the 10th
It is usually seed
propagated but shield and ring budding are also common.
- Loquat (Eribotrya japonica)
The plats are
propagated by gooties, which bear in 2-4 years. Seedlings take about 8 to 10 years to
- Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
Plants raised through
cuttings or gooties bear in 3 years while seedlings take 6-8 years and are never to be
Ground layering, air
layering and inarching are the usual methods of propagation.